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bogdi19

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  1. Expertii Kaspersky Lab din cadrul echipei Global Research and Analysis Team (GReAT) monitorizeaza cu atentie, de ani de zile, peste 60 de grupuri de atacatori responsabile de multe dintre amenintarile cibernetice avansate la nivel global. Abia acum, insa, cercetatorii Kaspersky Lab pot confirma ca au descoperit o grupare mult mai evoluata decat tot ce a fost descoperit anterior – Equation Group, care este activa de aproape doua decenii. Incepand cu 2001, Equation Group a infectat mii sau zeci de mii de victime din peste 30 de tari la nivel global, vizand tinte din urmatoarele sectoare: institutii guvernamentale si diplomatice, telecomunicatii, industria aeronautica, energie, cercetare nucleara, industria de petrol si gaze, armata, industria nanotehnologiei, activisti si studenti islamici, presa, transporturi, institutii financiare si companii care dezvolta tehnologii de criptare. Grupul Equation utilizeaza o infrastructura complexa de comanda si control (C&C) care include peste 300 de domenii si peste 100 de servere. Serverele sunt gazduite in mai multe tari, printre care se numara: SUA, Marea Britanie, Italia, Germania, Olanda, Panama, Costa Rica, Malaesia, Columbia si Republica Ceha. In prezent, expertii Kaspersky Lab au preluat controlul asupra a catorva zeci de servere de comanda si control (C&C) din cele 300 descoperite, se arata intr-un comunicat de presa al Kaspersky Lab. Pentru a infecta victimele, infractorii cibernetici utilizeaza un arsenal puternic de malware. Echipa GReAT a recuperat doua module care permit atacatorilor sa reprogrameze firmware-ul din hard disk-urile mai multor dezvoltatori cunoscuti. Acesta este probabil cel mai puternic instrument utilizat de grupul Equation, fiind primul malware care poate infecta hard disk-uri. Potrivit specialistilor de la Kaspersky, prin reprogramarea firmware-ului de pe HDD, grupul Equation poate atinge doua obiective. Primul ar fi dobandirea de acces persistent, nefiind influentat de formatarea hard disk-ului sau de reinstalarea sistemului de operare. Al doilea obiectiv este abilitatea de a dezvolta o zona invizibila pe hard disk, care sa fie utilizata pentru a stoca informatii confidentiale, pe care atacatorii le pot extrage ulterior. Cititi mai mult pe SecureList.com Sursa: Hit.ro - Stiri IT, Jocuri, Gadgeturi, Download programe
  2. Cineva de pe forum imi poate da si mie o invitatie pe Hackyard? Multumesc!
  3. CCIE R&S / CCIE Service Provider Performance Routing/Optimized Edge Routing SP Catalyst 3560 QoS Basics Catalyst Switching – Part 1 Catalyst Switching – Part 2 Routing Protocol Redistribution RIP Frame Relay Interdomain Multicast Routing OSPF Area Types Advanced MPLS L3 VPNs IP Multicast and Protocols MPLS 101 BGP Path Selection and Filtering IPv6 Protocols and Routing Multicast VPN EIGRP How I Passed CCIE 4.0 CCIE Voice Presence Integrations Sip Trunks Gatekeeper Troubleshooting Mobile Connect and Mobile Voice Access High Availability/CME as SRST v2 SIP Phone Setup & Features CUCME Features UCCX Integration and Troubleshooting Strategy for the Voice Lab Exam Cube Unity Connection Integration CCIE Wireless CCIE Wireless Preparation Tips Autonomous AP Modes Unified AP Modes Radio Resource Management WLC Templates in WCS ACS Server Configuration Unified Authentication and Encryption CCIE Security Cut-Thru Proxy Scenarios Zone Based Firewalls Easy VPN Troubleshooting IPsec VRF Aware VPN Nac Framework Security PKI Infrastructure ASA & IOS based NAT Ask the Expert Security Voice Link: Free CCIE vLectures for R&S,Voice, Wireless, Security & Service Provider | IPexpert Inc.
  4. Rutarea este un termen folosit pentru a desemna procesul de alegere a c?ii pe care un pachet este transmis de la surs? la destina?ie sau destina?ii, chiar ?i între dou? re?ele diferite. Rutarea este bazat? pe o tabel? care are în principal urm?toarele câmpuri: adresa re?elei (net address), masca de re?ea (netmask), adresa urm?torului ruter (next hop) ?i/sau adresa interfe?ei de ie?ire. Protocoalele de rutare stabilesc regulile prin care informa?iile despre re?ele sunt schimbate între rutere în mod dinamic în scopul ob?inerii unei tabele de rutare adecvate topologiei. Protocoalele de rutare pot fi clasificare dup? mai multe criterii: - Dup? tipul de algoritmi folosi?i Protocoale bazate pe vectori distan?? (Distance Vector – DV) Protocoale bazate pe starea leg?turilor (Link State – LS) - Dup? apartenen?a ruterelor la acela?i Sistem autonom – Autonomous System: protocoale folosite de ruterele aflate în acela?i sistem autonom (Interior Gateway Protocols – IGP); Ex.: Routing Information Protocol (RIP, RIPv2), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). protocoale folosite de ruterele care interconecteaz? sitemele autonome(Exterior gateway protocols – EGP). Ex.: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). - Dac? includ sau nu în mesajele de actualizare masca re?elei: protocoale classfull (RIPv1,IGRP) – acestea nu includ masca de re?ea protocoale classless (RIPv2, EIGRP, OSPF,IS-IS) Algoritmul de rutare extrage adresa IP destina?ie din pachetul IP, apoi verific? dac? acea adres? corespunde cu vreuna din adresele interfe?elor sale. Dac? nu, parcurge secven?ial tabela de rutare comparând rezultatul opera?iei ?I logic (AND) efectuat? între adresa IP destina?ie ?i masca re?elei extras? din înregistrarea tabelei de rutare. Dac? rezultatul opera?iei ?I logic corespunde cu adresa re?elei din înregistarea tabelei de rutare, pachetul IP este transmis la IP-ul specificat (next-hop). Dac? niciuna din re?elele din tabela de rutare nu corespunde cu adresa destina?ie, pachetul este ignorat. Sursa: InfoRetele
  5. Avantajul Apple este ca are fani nu clienti.
  6. Vezi in firewall la inbound and outbound rules daca serviciilor tale le este permisa comunicarea in afara retelei.
  7. Depinde si pe ce porturi ai facut forward.Daca nu ai facut pe portul 80 atunci cand le dai ip-ul ar trebui sa fie sub forma adresa ip:numarul portului de conectare la server. O sa-ti mai trebuiasca si un provider ddns deoarece la rds ai ip dinamic care se schimba la fiecare conectare/deconectare a serviciului.
  8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKnJdB2t1Uc Sa-l mute cineva la tutoriale video.Din graba l-am postat aici si abia acum am observat.
  9. Confirm si eu.Se conecteaza greu sau nu se mai conecteaza. Provider: RCS-RDS
  10. Ever needed to SSH to a server that you can’t connect to directly and would have to bounce off another host? Within your local ssh configuration file which is stored in $HOME/.ssh/config create a SSH host entry for the server you are going to tunnel through. Host ssh-proxy-server HostName ssh-proxy-server.example.com The host ssh-proxy-server will need the netcat package installed which provides the nc binary. Now create another SSH host entry for the final destination server. In order to SSH to this server, you have to SSH to the ssh-proxy-server, create a tunnel then SSH through that tunnel. Host web-server HostName web-server.example.com ProxyCommand ssh -q -A ssh-proxy-server 'nc %h %p' The important line in the final configuration item is the ProxyCommand. ProxyCommand specifies the command to use to connect to the server. %h is substituted for the hostname which is defined by the HostName directive. %p is substituted for the SSH destination port which defaults to 22. Now SSH indirectly to web-server.example.com. Use -v to see SSH bounce off the ssh-proxy-server server. $ ssh -v web-server.example.com If the bounce host, in our tutorial being ‘ssh-proxy-server.example.com’, was a SOCKS5 host and not a server running SSH we would use a different ProxyCommand directive. Host web-server HostName web-server.example.com ProxyCommand connect -R both -S ssh-proxy-server.example.com:1080 %h %p The ProxyCommand above uses the ‘connect’ binary which creates a connection to a SOCKS4/5 proxy. Our SSH client will then tunnel over this SOCKS tunnel to the remote server. SURSA: Linux Sysadmin Tutorials — Linux Sysadmin Tutorials
  11. OpenVPN is the de facto standard when it comes to deploying secure VPNs with a Linux as a server. OpenVPN has Windows and Mac clients which makes it a perfect VPN solution with a mix of server-to-server, server-to-network and a server-to-road-warrior setup. This tutorial will setup OpenVPN on Ubuntu server allowing a remote workstation to connect to the VPN. The workstation will be bridged into the local network over the OpenVPN tunnel giving it a local IP address on the network. Server Setup Firstly, lets install the OpenVPN and bridge tools packages on the server. $ sudo apt-get install openvpn bridge-utils In order to assign the remote workstation a 192.0.2.0/24 address we need to be able to bridge the OpenVPN interface (tap0) to the local 192.0.2.0/24 network. The adding of the tap0 to the bridge interface br0 will be handled by OpenVPN. Within the servers network configuration file /etc/network/interfaces we need to create the br0 interface. auto br0 iface br0 inet static address 192.0.2.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 network 192.0.2.0 broadcast 192.0.2.255 bridge_ports eth0 bridge_fd 9 bridge_hello 2 bridge_maxage 12 bridge_stp on bridge_prio 1000 Bring up the br0 interface with ifup. If eth0 or any other NIC was already configured on the local network, this NIC will have to be brought down before bringing up br0. $ sudo ifup br0 Check out the Network Connection Bridge Ubuntu wiki page if you are after more information on bridging. Now back to the OpenVPN setup. Import the easy-rsa scripts which are shipped with the OpenVPN package and stored in /usr/share/doc. Also setup a vars file which will be sourced when creating certificates. $ sudo mkdir /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa $ sudo rsync -avP /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/easy-rsa/2.0/* /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/ $ sudo vim /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/vars export KEY_COUNTRY="AU" export KEY_PROVINCE=VIC export KEY_CITY=MELBOURNE export KEY_ORG="OpenVPN-EXAMPLECOMPANY" export KEY_EMAIL="admin@example.org" Setup the CA, its certificates and the shared secret key storing them in /etc/openvpn/ $ sudo chown -R root:admin /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa $ sudo chmod g+w /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa $ cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa $ source ./vars $ sh ./clean-all $ sh ./build-dh $ sh ./pkitool --initca $ sh ./pkitool --server server $ cd keys $ openvpn --genkey --secret ta.key $ sudo cp server.crt server.key ca.crt dh1024.pem ta.key /etc/openvpn/ Create the scripts that will execute when the OpenVPN service starts and stops. These scripts add and remove the OpenVPN interface to the servers br0 interface. $ sudo su - # cat - <<EOF > /etc/openvpn/down.sh #!/bin/sh PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin BR=\$1 DEV=\$2 brctl delif \$BR \$DEV ip link set "\$DEV" down EOF # cat - <<EOF > /etc/openvpn/up.sh #!/bin/sh PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin BR=\$1 DEV=\$2 MTU=\$3 ip link set "\$DEV" up promisc on mtu "\$MTU" if ! brctl show \$BR | egrep -q "\W+\$DEV\$"; then brctl addif \$BR \$DEV fi EOF # chmod a+x /etc/openvpn/down.sh /etc/openvpn/up.sh The server configuration for OpenVPN is created in /etc/openvpn/server.conf. The config below bridges the OpenVPN clients to the 192.0.2.1/24 network using a range between 192.0.2.160 and 192.0.2.170 to lease to OpenVPN clients. It also calls the up.sh and down.sh scripts when the OpenVPN service is started and stopped. # cat - <<EOF > /etc/openvpn/server.conf port 1194 proto udp server-bridge 192.0.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.0.2.160 192.0.2.170 dev tap0 ca ca.crt cert server.crt tun-mtu 1454 key server.key dh dh1024.pem up "/etc/openvpn/up.sh br0" down "/etc/openvpn/down.sh br0" ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt keepalive 10 600 comp-lzo persist-key persist-tun verb 3 mute 20 status openvpn-status.log client-config-dir ccd client-to-client EOF Once the config and the server certificates are in place, start the OpenVPN service. $ sudo service openvpn start Client Setup On the server generate the client certificates for a client named John Example. $ cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa $ source ./vars $ ./build-key-pass john_example Enter the PEM pass phrase that the client will need to enter in everytime he connects to the VPN. The other options can be left as the default except for the Common Name which should be set to john_example.ovpn Tar the certificates up and transfer them to the client work station. $ cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys $ tar cvf ~/john_example.tar john_example.{crt,csr,key} ca.crt Tunnelblick is a free, open source OpenVPN graphical user interface for Mac OS. The contents of the tar files can be dropped into ~/Library/Application Support/Tunnelblick/Configurations and will be automatically imported into tunnelblick. With a Linux workstation, drop the files into /etc/openvpn/ after installing the openvpn package. On the client generate the OpenVPN client configuration file. # cat - <<EOF > /etc/openvpn/client-hq.conf client dev tap proto udp remote vpn-headoffice.example.org 1194 tun-mtu 1454 nobind persist-tun ca ca.crt cert client-john_example.crt key client-john_example.key comp-lzo verb 3 mute 20 auth-nocache EOF On a Linux client, the configuration file should dropped into /etc/openvpn/client.conf. With tunnelblick, the configuration file is dropped into ~/Library/Application Support/Tunnelblick/Configurations. The remote end point for the tunnel is vpn-headoffice.example.org which is the 203.0.113.254 interface on server.hq.example.org Once the client configuration is in place, start up the tunnel with tunnelblick or by starting the OpenVPN service on the Linux workstation. $ sudo service openvpn start On a Linux client a tap0 interface is created and should be assigned a 192.0.2.160/24 address allowing the entire 192.0.2.0/24 to be routed across the OpenVPN connection. $ ip addr show tap0 10: tap0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1454 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN qlen 100 link/ether f2:24:a0:41:51:f0 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 192.0.2.160/24 brd 192.0.2.255 scope global tap0 inet6 fe80::fc24:adff:fe43:51f0/64 scope link SURSA: Linux Sysadmin Tutorials — Linux Sysadmin Tutorials
  12. If you have been using the Internet for any length of time, and especially if you work at a larger company and browse the Web while you are at work, you have probably heard the term firewall used. For example, you often hear people in companies say things like, "I can't use that site because they won't let it through the firewall." If you have a fast Internet connection into your home (either a DSL connection or a cable modem), you may have found yourself hearing about firewalls for your home network as well. It turns out that a small home network has many of the same security issues that a large corporate network does. You can use a firewall to protect your home network and family from offensive Web sites and potential hackers. Basically, a firewall is a barrier to keep destructive forces away from your property. In fact, that's why its called a firewall. Its job is similar to a physical firewall that keeps a fire from spreading from one area to the next. As you read through this article, you will learn more about firewalls, how they work and what kinds of threats they can protect you from. What Firewall Software Does A firewall is simply a program or hardware device that filters the information coming through the Internet connection into your private network or computer system. If an incoming packet of information is flagged by the filters, it is not allowed through. If you have read the article How Web Servers Work, then you know a good bit about how data moves on the Internet, and you can easily see how a firewall helps protect computers inside a large company. Let's say that you work at a company with 500 employees. The company will therefore have hundreds of computers that all have network cards connecting them together. In addition, the company will have one or more connections to the Internet through something like T1 or T3 lines. Without a firewall in place, all of those hundreds of computers are directly accessible to anyone on the Internet. A person who knows what he or she is doing can probe those computers, try to make FTP connections to them, try to make telnet connections to them and so on. If one employee makes a mistake and leaves a security hole, hackers can get to the machine and exploit the hole. With a firewall in place, the landscape is much different. A company will place a firewall at every connection to the Internet (for example, at every T1 line coming into the company). The firewall can implement security rules. For example, one of the security rules inside the company might be: Out of the 500 computers inside this company, only one of them is permitted to receive public FTP traffic. Allow FTP connections only to that one computer and prevent them on all others. A company can set up rules like this for FTP servers, Web servers, Telnet servers and so on. In addition, the company can control how employees connect to Web sites, whether files are allowed to leave the company over the network and so on. A firewall gives a company tremendous control over how people use the network. Firewalls use one or more of three methods to control traffic flowing in and out of the network: Packet filtering - Packets (small chunks of data) are analyzed against a set of filters. Packets that make it through the filters are sent to the requesting system and all others are discarded. Proxy service - Information from the Internet is retrieved by the firewall and then sent to the requesting system and vice versa. Stateful inspection - A newer method that doesn't examine the contents of each packet but instead compares certain key parts of the packet to a database of trusted information. Information traveling from inside the firewall to the outside is monitored for specific defining characteristics, then incoming information is compared to these characteristics. If the comparison yields a reasonable match, the information is allowed through. Otherwise it is discarded. Firewall Configuration Firewalls are customizable. This means that you can add or remove filters based on several conditions. Some of these are: IP addresses - Each machine on the Internet is assigned a unique address called an IP address. IP addresses are 32-bit numbers, normally expressed as four "octets" in a "dotted decimal number." A typical IP address looks like this: 216.27.61.137. For example, if a certain IP address outside the company is reading too many files from a server, the firewall can block all traffic to or from that IP address. Domain names - Because it is hard to remember the string of numbers that make up an IP address, and because IP addresses sometimes need to change, all servers on the Internet also have human-readable names, called domain names. For example, it is easier for most of us to remember HowStuffWorks "Learn how Everything Works!" than it is to remember 216.27.61.137. A company might block all access to certain domain names, or allow access only to specific domain names. Protocols - The protocol is the pre-defined way that someone who wants to use a service talks with that service. The "someone" could be a person, but more often it is a computer program like a Web browser. Protocols are often text, and simply describe how the client and server will have their conversation. The http in the Web's protocol. Some common protocols that you can set firewall filters for include: IP (Internet Protocol) - the main delivery system for information over the Internet TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) - used to break apart and rebuild information that travels over the Internet HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) - used for Web pages FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - used to download and upload files UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - used for information that requires no response, such as streaming audio and video ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) - used by a router to exchange the information with other routers SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) - used to send text-based information (e-mail) SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) - used to collect system information from a remote computer Telnet - used to perform commands on a remote computer A company might set up only one or two machines to handle a specific protocol and ban that protocol on all other machines. Ports - Any server machine makes its services available to the Internet using numbered ports, one for each service that is available on the server (see How Web Servers Work for details). For example, if a server machine is running a Web (HTTP) server and an FTP server, the Web server would typically be available on port 80, and the FTP server would be available on port 21. A company might block port 21 access on all machines but one inside the company. Specific words and phrases - This can be anything. The firewall will sniff (search through) each packet of information for an exact match of the text listed in the filter. For example, you could instruct the firewall to block any packet with the word "X-rated" in it. The key here is that it has to be an exact match. The "X-rated" filter would not catch "X rated" (no hyphen). But you can include as many words, phrases and variations of them as you need. Some operating systems come with a firewall built in. Otherwise, a software firewall can be installed on the computer in your home that has an Internet connection. This computer is considered a gateway because it provides the only point of access between your home network and the Internet. With a hardware firewall, the firewall unit itself is normally the gateway. A good example is the Linksys Cable/DSL router. It has a built-in Ethernet card and hub. Computers in your home network connect to the router, which in turn is connected to either a cable or DSL modem. You configure the router via a Web-based interface that you reach through the browser on your computer. You can then set any filters or additional information. Hardware firewalls are incredibly secure and not very expensive. Home versions that include a router, firewall and Ethernet hub for broadband connections can be found for well under $100. Why Firewall Security? There are many creative ways that unscrupulous people use to access or abuse unprotected computers: Remote login - When someone is able to connect to your computer and control it in some form. This can range from being able to view or access your files to actually running programs on your computer. Application backdoors - Some programs have special features that allow for remote access. Others contain bugs that provide a backdoor, or hidden access, that provides some level of control of the program. SMTP session hijacking - SMTP is the most common method of sending e-mail over the Internet. By gaining access to a list of e-mail addresses, a person can send unsolicited junk e-mail (spam) to thousands of users. This is done quite often by redirecting the e-mail through the SMTP server of an unsuspecting host, making the actual sender of the spam difficult to trace. Operating system bugs - Like applications, some operating systems have backdoors. Others provide remote access with insufficient security controls or have bugs that an experienced hacker can take advantage of. Denial of service - You have probably heard this phrase used in news reports on the attacks on major Web sites. This type of attack is nearly impossible to counter. What happens is that the hacker sends a request to the server to connect to it. When the server responds with an acknowledgement and tries to establish a session, it cannot find the system that made the request. By inundating a server with these unanswerable session requests, a hacker causes the server to slow to a crawl or eventually crash. E-mail bombs - An e-mail bomb is usually a personal attack. Someone sends you the same e-mail hundreds or thousands of times until your e-mail system cannot accept any more messages. Macros - To simplify complicated procedures, many applications allow you to create a script of commands that the application can run. This script is known as a macro. Hackers have taken advantage of this to create their own macros that, depending on the application, can destroy your data or crash your computer. Viruses - Probably the most well-known threat is computer viruses. A virus is a small program that can copy itself to other computers. This way it can spread quickly from one system to the next. Viruses range from harmless messages to erasing all of your data. Spam - Typically harmless but always annoying, spam is the electronic equivalent of junk mail. Spam can be dangerous though. Quite often it contains links to Web sites. Be careful of clicking on these because you may accidentally accept a cookie that provides a backdoor to your computer. Redirect bombs - Hackers can use ICMP to change (redirect) the path information takes by sending it to a different router. This is one of the ways that a denial of service attack is set up. Source routing - In most cases, the path a packet travels over the Internet (or any other network) is determined by the routers along that path. But the source providing the packet can arbitrarily specify the route that the packet should travel. Hackers sometimes take advantage of this to make information appear to come from a trusted source or even from inside the network! Most firewall products disable source routing by default. Some of the items in the list above are hard, if not impossible, to filter using a firewall. While some firewalls offer virus protection, it is worth the investment to install anti-virus software on each computer. And, even though it is annoying, some spam is going to get through your firewall as long as you accept e-mail. The level of security you establish will determine how many of these threats can be stopped by your firewall. The highest level of security would be to simply block everything. Obviously that defeats the purpose of having an Internet connection. But a common rule of thumb is to block everything, then begin to select what types of traffic you will allow. You can also restrict traffic that travels through the firewall so that only certain types of information, such as e-mail, can get through. This is a good rule for businesses that have an experienced network administrator that understands what the needs are and knows exactly what traffic to allow through. For most of us, it is probably better to work with the defaults provided by the firewall developer unless there is a specific reason to change it. One of the best things about a firewall from a security standpoint is that it stops anyone on the outside from logging onto a computer in your private network. While this is a big deal for businesses, most home networks will probably not be threatened in this manner. Still, putting a firewall in place provides some peace of mind. Proxy Servers and DMZ A function that is often combined with a firewall is a proxy server. The proxy server is used to access Web pages by the other computers. When another computer requests a Web page, it is retrieved by the proxy server and then sent to the requesting computer. The net effect of this action is that the remote computer hosting the Web page never comes into direct contact with anything on your home network, other than the proxy server. Proxy servers can also make your Internet access work more efficiently. If you access a page on a Web site, it is cached (stored) on the proxy server. This means that the next time you go back to that page, it normally doesn't have to load again from the Web site. Instead it loads instantaneously from the proxy server. There are times that you may want remote users to have access to items on your network. Some examples are: Web site Online business FTP download and upload area In cases like this, you may want to create a DMZ (Demilitarized Zone). Although this sounds pretty serious, it really is just an area that is outside the firewall. Think of DMZ as the front yard of your house. It belongs to you and you may put some things there, but you would put anything valuable inside the house where it can be properly secured. Setting up a DMZ is very easy. If you have multiple computers, you can choose to simply place one of the computers between the Internet connection and the firewall. Most of the software firewalls available will allow you to designate a directory on the gateway computer as a DMZ. Once you have a firewall in place, you should test it. A great way to do this is to go to Sursa:http://computer.howstuffworks.com
  13. In snowbreeze ai o optiune care face exact chestia asta si anume activeaza telefonul fara cartela.
  14. Ca sa instalezi ios 5 pe iphone 4 fara sa-ti faca update de baseband folosesti snowbreeze,sunt o gramada de tutoriale pe net. Cat despre downgrade ai un tutorial foarte bun in romana aici Tutorial: Cum sa faci downgrade de la iOS 5 la iOS 4.3.3 | iDevice.ro
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