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Adversarial Examples for Electrocardiograms

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Adversarial Examples for Electrocardiograms

(Submitted on 13 May 2019)
Among all physiological signals, electrocardiogram (ECG) has seen some of the largest expansion in both medical and recreational applications with the rise of single-lead versions. These versions are embedded in medical devices and wearable products such as the injectable Medtronic Linq monitor, the iRhythm Ziopatch wearable monitor, and the Apple Watch Series 4. Recently, deep neural networks have been used to classify ECGs, outperforming even physicians specialized in cardiac electrophysiology. However, deep learning classifiers have been shown to be brittle to adversarial examples, including in medical-related tasks. Yet, traditional attack methods such as projected gradient descent (PGD) create examples that introduce square wave artifacts that are not physiological. Here, we develop a method to construct smoothed adversarial examples. We chose to focus on models learned on the data from the 2017 PhysioNet/Computing-in-Cardiology Challenge for single lead ECG classification. For this model, we utilized a new technique to generate smoothed examples to produce signals that are 1) indistinguishable to cardiologists from the original examples 2) incorrectly classified by the neural network. Further, we show that adversarial examples are not rare. Deep neural networks that have achieved state-of-the-art performance fail to classify smoothed adversarial ECGs that look real to clinical experts.
Subjects: Signal Processing (eess.SP); Cryptography and Security (cs.CR); Machine Learning (cs.LG); Machine Learning (stat.ML)
Cite as: arXiv:1905.05163 [eess.SP]
  (or arXiv:1905.05163v1 [eess.SP] for this version)
 

Submission history

From: Xintian Han [view email]
[v1] Mon, 13 May 2019 17:47:25 UTC (1,236 KB)

 

Sursa: https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.05163

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