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Found 5 results

  1. Primul program facut in "domeniul" machine learning. Sunt niste cerculete care evolueaza sa treaca peste un obstacol si sa ajunga la un target. Link Video link
  2. Now that machine-learning algorithms are moving into mainstream computing, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is preparing a way to make it easier to use the technique in everyday programming. In June, MIT researchers will present a new programming language, called Picture, that could radically reduce the amount of coding needed to help computers recognize objects in images and video. It is a prototype of how a relatively novel form of programming, called probabilistic programming, could reduce the amount of code needed for such complex tasks. In one test of the new language, the researchers were able to cut thousands of lines of code in one image recognition program down to fewer than 50. They plan to present the results at the Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition conference in June With probabilistic programming, “we’re building models of what faces look like in general, and use them to make pretty good guesses about what face we’re seeing for the first time,” said Josh Tenenbaum, an MIT professor of computational cognitive science who assisted in the work. A new twist Picture uses statistical inference to cut away much of the basic computational work needed for computer vision. It works much like the inverse to computer animation. Computer graphics programs, such as those used by Pixar and other animation companies, make two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects, given a relatively small amount of instruction from programmers. The Picture language works in the opposite direction. It can recognize an object within a two-dimensional image by comparing it to a set of models of what the objects could be. The work stems from a program that the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency launched in 2013 to develop probabilistic programming languages to further facilitate the use of machine learning. Although an academic pursuit for decades, machine learning is quickly becoming a feasible technique for commercial use, thanks to more powerful computers and new cloud machine learning services offered by Amazon Web Services and Microsoft Azure. Although probabilistic programming does not require machine learning to work, it can provide a way to streamline the use of machine learning, Tenenbaum said. “In pure machine learning, you drive performance increases by just collecting more and more data and just letting machine learning do the work,” Tenenbaum said. In probabilistic programming, “the underlying system is more knowledge-based, using the causal process of how images are formed,” Tenenbaum said. Picture is one of a number of different probabilistic programming languages that MIT is currently working on. Another, more general-use, probabilistic programming language from the team, called Venture, can be used to solve other kinds of problems, Tenenbaum said. MIT's Picture language could be worth a thousand lines of code | PCWorld
  3. Packet crafting is the art of creating a packet according to various requirements to carry out attacks and to exploit vulnerabilities in a network. It’s mainly used to penetrate into a network’s structure. There are various vulnerability assessment tools used to craft such packets. As a coin has two sides, these tools could be used by hackers to find the vulnerabilities of a targeted system. Crafting is technically advanced and a complex type of vulnerability exploitation, and it’s difficult to detect and diagnose. Steps Involved in Packet Crafting The idea behind crafting is to try to simulate an attack and to identify the properties of a network. They are commonly used to invade firewalls and intrusion detection software. The following are the steps involved in packet crafting: Packet Assembly: This is the first step involved in packet crafting. In this process, the attacker selects the network to be cracked, collects the possible vulnerability information and creates the packet. The packet should be designed in such a way that it should be invisible while passing through a network. For example, for a packet to be invisible, the source address could be spoofed before sending it to a network. Packet Editing: In this step, the packets are tested before sending. The packets are edited in such a way that maximum information could be retrieved by injecting a minimum number of packets. Packet Playing: When the packets are ready, packet playing sends them to the targeted machine and collects the resultant packets for further analysis. If the required information is not obtained, the attacker again moves to the editing phase to modify the packet to obtain the required result. Packet Analysis: The sent packets are received by the attacker and they are analyzed to extract the information. Various sniffing tools like Wireshark, tcpdump, dsniff, etc. are used for this purpose. This step gives a route to the targeted system, or at least gives attackers enough data to tune up the attack. Tools For Packet Crafting: Hping, Nemesis, Netcat, Scapy, Socat Let’s carry out a test to understand the creation and working of a crafted packet and its effect on a firewall. Test Requirements Two Machines (One with Hping and Other with Snort installed). Working connection between two machines. Hping This is a utility that helps us to assemble and send ICMP, UDP or TCP packets and then display the results. It’s similar to the ping command, but it offers far more options to customize the packet to be sent. This helps to map the firewall set rules of a targeted system. Snort Sort is a free network intrusion detection and prevention software. It helps us to carry out real time traffic analysis packet logging, protocol analysis, content searching, etc. on a network. Testing Figure 1: Packet Crafting test setup Now we are going to check how a packet can be crafted from a system using Hping, and how it can be customized to be invisible in a network. We are using Snort as the IDS in the target machine. This could prove that packet crafting is a serious issue that should be studied to prevent attacks. Firstly install Hping on the source machine. It’s a command line multi-platform software. We are using two Linux machines for the test. The installation package could be downloaded from various websites. The next step is to install the intrusion detection software at the destination end. Download the latest version Snort with Winpcap and install it on the machine. Winpcap is a driver that helps in collecting packets. After setting up two machines, establish a connection between the two machines to transfer the packets. Check the connection before sending the packets. These are the steps to setup the test environment. Now we have to craft the packet using Hping. In Hping there are various arguments to modify the packet to be sent according to the requirement. These could be obtained from the manual page of Hping. Before sending the packet, determine the address of the target machine. Here it is 192.168.0.10. Now write the command for packet creation. Hping is a command line software. For creating the packets, the commands should be given in a perfect way so that the packet penetrates into the targeted system without being detected. An example is given below: hping 192.168.0.10 –udp –spoof 192.168.1.150 The packets are sent to the UDP port of machine 192.168.0.10 with a spoofed source IP of 192.168.1.150. Figure 2: Spoofing to UDP port. Figure 3: Spoofed address on target system hiding original address Packet crafting could be used to carry out DOS attacks to a targeted machine. This could be done by flooding packets to a predetermined port. The number of packets reaching the port is beyond the managing capacity of that port. This results in the failure of the system and finally becomes non-responsive to any request made to that particular system. Port Scanning Before sending a packet to the system Hping could be used to carry out a port scan. This helps the attacker to get the information on available open ports to carry out attack easily. The weakest port is selected to gain access to the system. hping3 -S 192.168.0.10 -p 80 -c 2 This command scans port number 80 of machine with IP 192.168.0.10. There are even commands to scan the complete ports in a machine. This will give the attacker the complete status of the ports in a system. hping 192.168.0.10 –S -p 22 –rand-source –flood This command floods the port number 22 of the mentioned machine. As the flooding starts, the machine becomes non responsive. When the flooding is stopped, the machine comes back to its normal state. Figure 4: Command for flooding a machine Figure 5: Result displayed by Snort after flooding. We can see from the above image that a large number of packets have been dumped to the targeted machine within a small amount of time. The IDS software does not detect the packets while the flooding is in process. But as soon as the flooding is stopped, Snort displays only the number of packets received. The traffic created by flooding the packets cannot be handled by the system and becomes non-responsive. No Signatures are generated during the process. DNS and ICMP Packet Crafting Domain Name System is the system responsible for resolving domain names. DNS uses ports 53 UDP for normal operations and can enlist port 53 TCP for zone transfers and other oversized replies. Once the address is entered into the URL, the browser will try to resolve the IP. If the address is not known, then a DNS request will be sent to the DNS server configured on the client. We could craft such a packet using Hping so that the firewall does not block the packet. hping -2 –p 53 -E data.dns -d 31 192.168.0.10 Here the packet is sent to the port number 53 of the target (192.168.0.10), with the packet containing a file called “data.dns”. The packet size has also been specified as 31. Figure 6: Sending a file to target’s DNS port When sending a data file through Hping, the IDS used in the target’s machine does not detect the presence of the attached file. It only displays the total number of packets transmitted and received. Even tough it shows unreachable, the packets are received at the target location. Hping can also be used to send ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) packets. ICMP packets are usually used to troubleshoot networks and for gathering basic information. These packets could be used to check whether a host is alive or not. In most of the firewalls, packets like ICMP and DNS request have the ability to pass by. These crafted ICMP packets helps us to pass through the firewall. At the senders end, we have to specify the type of packet, destination and other details for proper communication. hping 192.168.0.11 –d 100 –icmp –file /data.dns Here the file “data.dns” is sent to the target 192.168.0.11 using an ICMP packet. Figure 7: File sent using ICMP packet Using such crafted packets, a traffic firewall could be breached. From the above test, we can agree to the fact that packet crafting is a serious issue that should be taken care of. References Snort: 5 Steps to Install and Configure Snort on Linux LINUX HELP ALL: INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING SNORT ON REDHAT/CENTOS v5.5 Cyber Attacks Explained: Packet Crafting - Open Source For You Article : Cyber Security Packet crafting : Ethical Hacking Penetration Test Pune,India - Valency Networks Tools for creating TCP/IP packets | Linux Blog http://www.securitybistro.com/?p=8881 Source
  4. Fresh upload , rate and hate!!! - - txtrrr ae :: [txtrrr ae - YouTube ] Automat -- Electrospectif (1997/2004 ) [http://discogs.com/Automat-Electrospectif-19972004/master/242367 ] - - Genre: Electronic Style: Techno, Electro - - Easily one of the top ten electro releases of the last decade. Automat produces dark, spacey, bass-heavy trax influenced by the classic Detroit operators but in a style that really isn't like anything else out there. Elements of acid and techno are successfully hybridized with a minimalist electro sensibility. His tracks are never cluttered--they seem spacious like the best dub, which lets the hard-hitting space marine drum programming and mind- and speaker-blowing basslines come to the fore. Seriously, I've listened to a lot of electro and Automat writes some of the best basslines I've ever heard; they slither and pulse as if his synths had evolved into new kinds of lifeforms. The synth work is insanely tweaked and distorted yet quite catchy at the same time. [#qpae ]
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